1. OLAP-.
  2. Ͳ

1.

- 0,97-0,99
- ³ 0,95-0,96
0,95-0,98
( ) 0,97
'
- ' 0,7-075
- ' 0,75-0,82
- ' 0,87-0,92
0,96
0,97
0,96-0,98
0,99
0,99

2.

4 ( 19523-81)

, , /
S,% .. S,% .. S,% .. S,% ..
0,55 0,75 1,1 1,5 2,2 3,0 4,0 5,5 7,5 46323 47123 47123 48023 48023 490L23 4100S23 4100L23 4112M23 8.5 5.9 6.3 4.2 4.3 4.3 3.3 3.4 2.5 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.4 1.4 2.0 2.0 4A71A43 4A71B43 4A80A43 4A80B43 4A90L43 4A100S43 4A100L43 4A112M43 4A132S43 4A132M43 7.3 7.5 5.4 5.8 5.1 4.4 4.7 3.7 3.0 2.8 2.3 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.3 2.3 2.0 1.4 1.2 4A71B63 4A80A63 4A80B63 4A90L63 4A100L63 4A112MA63 4A112MB63 4A132S63 4A132M63 10.0 8.4 8.0 6.4 5.1 4.7 5.1 3.3 3.2 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.1 1.8 1.4 1.3 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 4A80B3 4A90LA83 4A90LB83 4A100L83 9.0 6.0 7.0 7.0 6.0 5.8 4.1 4.1 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.3 2.7 1.8 1.6 1.4 2.2 2.2 2.0 2.0 1.6
4A112MA83 4A112MB83 4A132S83 4A132M83 1.8
4A160S83 4A160M83 1.4
11,0 4132M23 1.6 4A160S63 4A160M63 4A180M63 4A200M63 4A200L63 4A225M63 4A250S63 4A250M63 4A280S63 4A280M63 1.2
15,0 18,5 46323 4160M23 4180S23 1.4 1.2 4A160S43 4A160M43 4A180S43 4A180M83 4A200M83 4A200L83 4A225M83 4A250S83 4A250M83 4A280S83 4A280M83 1.2
4180M23 4200M23 4200L23 4A180M43 4A200M43 4A200L43
4225M23 4250S23 4250M23 4280S23 4A225M43 4A250S43 4A250M43 4A280S43
4A315S83 4A315MM83 1.0
4A315S63 1.0
: 1. 4 , - -. , - ; , - , ; , . - . L, S . ˳ . 2,4,6 8 . () , .2. ( ) .3. 4 .

3.

,

(?2 ) (?5,5 ) ; 1-2= 20 ... 50 (?5.5 ) ; 1-2= 70
35, 40, 45,40 , 40, 35 40, 40, 35
++
?350 ?45 HRC, ?350
, NHO; NFO, / 2 [O] HO 1,8 +67 14 HRC +170 1,8 +67
[O] FO 1,03 370 m? 3 1,03
310 m <3

. 1. . , ' , 40, 40 2. (D> 500 ) (35, 40, 45. 40 . - , ) .


4

S = 0,5d L
* S, , ( O O ) (-, - ³ , - , - , -)
* * O O
- ( )
40 45 40 40 35 40 35 20122538 100 ... 300300 ... 500 100 ... 300 - - 192 ... 228 170 ... 217 192 ... 240 241 ... 285 179 ... 228 228 ... 255 230 ... 260 260 ... 280 50 ... 59 HRC 230 ... 280 HB 163 ... 269 HB163 ... 269 HB230 ... 300 HB ?241 HB48 ... 54 HB 241 HB 269 HB45 ... 53 HRC ?302 HB ?217 HB235 HB 270 HB310 HB46 .. .53 HRC 56 ... 63 HRC56 ... 63 HRC58 ... 63 HRC57 ... 67 HRC - - - - - - - -26 ... 30 HRC - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -30 ... 35 HRC 700 ... 800 ?760 1700 ... 1950 ?500 1350 ... 1600 3, 840 ... 860? , , , 550 ... 620? , 850 ... 870? 3, 820 ... 840? , , , 560 ... 600? 3, 820 ... 840? , , , 520 ... 530? , 840..860? 3, 820 ... 840? , , 560 ... 620? 3, 830 ... 850? , , 540 ... 680? 3 , 830 ... 850? , , 500? , ' 3, 840 ... 860? , , , 580 ... 640? 3, 820 ... 840? , , , 560 ... 600? 3, 820 ... 840? , , , 180 ... 200? 3, 850 ... 870? , , , 600 ... 650? 3, 850 ... 870? , , , 200 ... 220? 3, 830 ... 850? , , , 600 ... 620? 3, 850 ... 880? , , , 640 ... 660? 3 , 850 ... 880? , , , 500? 3, 860 ... 880? , , , 200 ... 250? , , , -
45304035 - - - - - - - - - - - - , , , ,

* - ; - : - , - , , - , - , - , - ; - , 1%. ; - .

* * , ' . ?0,285 O HB.

.2. , HB HRC.

. 3.

5.

,

( ? 2 ) ( ? 5,5 ) ; 1-2= 20 ... 50 ( ? 5,5 ) 1-2?70
, ' , '
35, 40, 45, 40, 40, 35 40 40, 35
+
? ?45 HRC ? 350
N; NF, [S] 1,8 + 67 14 HRC+170 1,8 +67
[S]FO 1,03 370 m?3 1,03
310 m <3

: 1. . , ' , 40, 40. 2. (D?500 ) (35, 40, 45, 40, - , ) .









2 ? 350. 1> 350 2> 350.

.4.



. 5. ?.

6.

r, / .
15 10 6 2 12 8 4 1,5 30 15 10 4 20 10 7 3

7.

KHr KF v 2 ? 350

V, /
KHr KF v 1,031,011,061,02 1,061,021,131,05 1,121,031,261,10 1,171,041,401,15 1,231,061,581,20 1,281,071,671,25
KHr KF v 1,041,021,081,03 1,071,031,161,06 1,141,051,331,11 1,211,061,501,16 1,291,071,671,22 1,361,081,801,27
KHr KF v 1,041,011,101,03 1,081,021,201,06 1,161,041,381,11 1,241,061,581,17 1,321,071,781,23 1,41,081,961,29
KHr KF v 1,051,011,131,04 1,11,031,281,07 1,21,051,501,14 1,31,071,771,21 1,41,091,981,28 1,51,122,251,35

: , - .

8.

YF1 YF2

zz v YF z v YF z v YF z v YF z v YF z v YF
4,284,274,073,98 3,923,903,883,81 3,803,783,753,70 3,663,653,623,62 3,613,613,603,60 ? 3,623,63

: YF = 0.


. 6.

9.

b0, bp, h, A1, Dmin, q, / L, T1, *
Z (0) A (A) B () C (B) D () E () EO (E) OA 8,5 8,5 10,513,523,5 0,060,100,180,300,600,901,52 0,070,120,200,36 400 ... 2500560 ... 4000800 ... 63001800 ... 106 003 150 ... 150 004 500 ... 180 006 300 ... 18000 630 ... 3550800 ... 45001250 ... 80002000 ... 8000 3015 ... 6050 ... 150120 ... 600450 ... 24001600 ... 6000 2500 15090 ... 400300 ... 2000 1500 ( 1284.1-89 *, 1284.2-89 *) ( 38-40534; 38-105161)

: A1 - .


10.

[0], , , ,

L0 ij d1, r, /
- - - - - - 0,330,370,430,490,510,54 0,490,560,620,670,750,80 0,820,951,071,161,251,33 1,031,221,411,561,691,79 1,111,371,601,731,942,11 -1,401,651,902,112,28 - - -1,852,082,27
- - - - - - 0,710,720,740,800,870,97 0,840,951,051,151,261,37 1,391,601,822,002,172,34 1,752,072,392,662,913,20 1,882,312,743,103,423,78 -2,292,823,273,674,11 - -2,503,143,644,17
- - - - - - 0,951,041,161,281,401,55 1,391,611,832,012,102,21 2,262,703,153,513,734,00 2,803,454,134,664,955,29 -3,834,735,445,956,57 - -4,885,766,327,00 - -4,475,536,237,07
- - - - - - - 0,680,780,900,921,071,151,22 0,951,181,381,551,661,801,90 1,501,952,342,652,923,203,40 1,802,463,063,573,954,354,70 1,852,733,504,204,725,255,70 -2,653,664,505,205,856,42 - - -4,555,356,156,85
- - - - - - 1,081,261,411,531,721,84 1,561,892,172,412,642,88 2,573,153,724,234,705,17 -4,044,885,676,37,03 -4,465,616,07,568,54 - -5,847,128,259,51 - - -7,108,439,94
- - - - - 1,962,242,462,642,81 2,953,453,804,124,26 5,005,986,707,37,88 6,377,889,0510,010,7 -9,1010,611,913,0 -9,4911,413,114,6 - -11,513,315,1
0,650,70,760,850,880,920,950,97 0,900,981,061,181,251,31,351,38 1,41,551,651,862,02,052,152,2 2,42,72,93,43,63,73,94,0 3,23,64,04,64,95,25,45,6 3,74,34,85,76,06,46,76,9 -4,95,36,46,97,38,09,2 - - -6,87,47,98,79,1

. 10

1600 1,92,22,32,542,72,9 2,572,963,23,533,764,04 3,94,55,05,55,96,3 6,47,68,69,610,411,0 7,99,711,212,713,915,0 8,310,812,714,716,317,8 - -13,015,317,419,2 - - - -17,019,0
2240 7,17,78,5 9,5710,5611,67 14,516,318,0 24,027,731,3 30,235,841,2 32,830,347,5 31,840,449,5 24,235,446,3

11

dz
0,9 0,8 0,7

?1 ?

?1,
? 0,97 0,94 0,91 - - -
0,98 0,95 0,92 0,89 0,86 0,83

v

v, /
v 1,04 1,03 0,95 0,88 0,79 0,68
1,05 1,04 0,94 0,85 0,74 0,6

?.

?, 0 ... 60 60 ... 80 80 ... 90
? 0,9 0,8

. 11

Lp

L0

Lp / L0 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,2 1,4
Cl 0,82 0,89 0,95 1,04 1,07
0,85 0,91 0,96 1,03 1,06

d

ij 120
d 0,6 0,8 0,95 1,0 1,1 1,2

z

z 2 ... 3 4 ... 5
z 0,95 0,90 0,85

12

1,2 ... 1,5
0,81,25
, ? = 0 ... 40? = 40 ... 90 1,151,05
? ? 60?> 60 ? 1,25
( ) 0,8 1,5
1,25

13

| |, / 2

, n1, / .
12,7 ... 1587519,05 ... 25,431,75 ... 38,144,45 ... 50,8 31,5 28,5 23,517,5 18,5 22,516,5 - 17,5 - 18,5 - -

14

* ; 1- ; 2 -

( 13568-81)

b3 d1 d3 h. b7 b6 , , . 1 q,
-8-460-9,525-910-12,7-900-1-12,7-900-2-12.7-1820-1-12,7-1820-2-15,875-2300-1-15,875-2300-2-19,05-3180-25,4-6000-31.75-8900-38. 1-12700-44.45-17240-50,8-22700-63.5-35400 8.09.52512,712,712,712.715,78515,87519,0525,431,7538,144,4550,863,5 3.005,722,403,305,407,756,489,6512.7015,8819,0525,425,4031,7538,10 2,313,283,663,664,454,455,085,085.947.929,5311,112,7014,2719.84 5.06.357.757,758,518,5110,1610,1611.9115.8819,0522,2325,4028,5839,68 7,58,510,010,011.811.814,814,818,224,230,236,242,448,360,4 8.7 - 0,200,450,300,350,650,750,801,001,92,63,85,57,59,716,0

: 1. , ; 20%. 2. 19.05 3180 : -19,05- 3180- 13568-75

15

[S]

() z1= 15 ... 30

, n1 / .
12,715,87519,0525,431,7538,144,4550,8 7,17,27,27,37,47,57,67,7 7,37,47,87,67,88,18,3 7,67,88,38,68,99,29,5 7,98,28,48,99,49,810,310,8 8,28,68,99,510,210,811,4 8,58,99,410,211,812,5 - 8,89,39,710,811,812,7 - - 9,410,110,813,4 - - - 10,811,713,3 - - - -

16

( 23360-78)







ϳ . .08. 60 ? 84 1/16

. Times New Roman. .

. . . 4,75. .-. . 5,04. 100. .

-

쳿

400002, , -, 26




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