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Personal contacts. Eighty percent of available jobs are never advertised, and over half of all employees get their jobs through networking, according to BH Careers International. Therefore, the people you know - friends, family, neighbours, acquaintances, teachers, and former coworkers - are some of the most effective resources for your job search. The network of people that you know and the people that they know can lead to information about specific job openings that are not publicly posted. To develop new contacts, join student, community, or professional organizations.

School career planning and placement offices. High school and college placement offices help their students and alumni find jobs. They allow recruiters to use their facilities for interviews or career fairs. Placement offices usually have a list of part-time, temporary, and summer jobs offered on campus. They also may have lists of jobs for regional, nonprofit, and government organizations. In addition to linking you to potential employers, career planning offices usually provide career counseling, career testing, and job search advice. Some have career resourcelibraries; host workshops on job search strategy, resumé writing, letter writing, and effective interviewing; critique drafts of resumés; conduct mock interviews; and sponsor job fairs.

Employers. Through your library and Internet research, develop a list of potential employers in your desired career field. Employer Web sites often contain lists of job openings. Web sites and business directories can provide you with information on how to apply for a position or whom to contact. Even if no open positions are posted, do not hesitate to contact the employer and the relevant department. Set up an interview with someone working in the same area in which you wish to work. Ask them how they got started, what they like and dislike about the work, what type of qualifications are necessary for the job, and what type of personality succeeds in thatposition. Even if they don't have a position available, they may be able to put you in contact withother people who might hire you, and they can keep you in mind if a position opens up. Make sure to send them your resumé and a cover letter. If you are able to obtain an interview, be sure to send a thank-you note. Directly contacting employers is one of the most successful means of job hunting.

Classified ads. The "Help Wanted" ads in newspapers list numerous jobs. You should realize, however, that many other job openings are not listed, and that the classified ads sometimes donot give all of the important information. They may offer little or no description of the job, working conditions, or pay. Some ads do not identify the employer. They may simply give a post office box to which you can mail your resumé, making follow-up inquiries very difficult. Some ads offer out-of-town jobs; others advertise employment agencies rather than actual employment opportunities.

When using classified ads, keep the following in mind:

Do not rely solely on the classifieds to find a job; follow other leads as well.

Answer ads promptly, because openings may be filled quickly, even before the ad stops appearing in the paper.

Read the ads every day, particularly the Sunday edition, which usually includes the most listings.

Beware of "no experience necessary" ads. These ads often signal low wages, poorworking conditions, or commission work.

Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded, including the specific skills, educational background, and personal qualifications required for the position.

Internet networks and resources. The Internet is an invaluable resource. Use it to find advice on conducting your job search more effectively; to search for a job; to research prospective employers; and to communicate with people who can help you with your job search. No single web site will contain all the information available on employment or career opportunities, so use a search engine to find what you need. The different types of sites that may be useful include general career advice sites, job search sites, company web sites, trade and professional association web sites, and forums. Internet forums, also called message boards, are online discussion groups where anyone may post and read messages. Use forums specific to your profession or to career-related topics to post questions or messages and to read about other peoples' job searches or career experiences.

In job databases, remember that job listings may be posted by field or discipline, so begin your search using keywords. Some web sites provide national or local classified listings and allow job seekers to post their resumés online. When searching employment databases on the Internet, it usually is possible to send your resumé to an employer by e-mail or to post it online.

State employment service offices. The State employment service, sometimes called the Job Service, operates in coordination with the U.S. Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration. Local offices, found nationwide, help job seekers to find jobs and help employers to find qualified workers at no cost to either. To find the office nearest you, look in the State government telephone listings under "Job Service" or "Employment."

Job matching and referral. At the State employment service office, an interviewer will determine if you are "job ready" or if you need help from counseling and testing services to assess your occupational aptitudes and interests and to help you choose and prepare for a career. After you are "job ready," you may examine available job listings and select openings that interest you. A staff member can then describe the job openings in detail and arrange for interviews with prospective employers.

Professional associations. Many professions have associations that offer employmentinformation, including career planning, educational programs, job listings, and job placement. To use these services, associations usually require that you be a member; information can be obtained directly from an association through the Internet, by telephone, or by mail.

Labour unions. Labour unions provide various employment services to members, including apprenticeship programs that teach a specific trade or skill. Contact the appropriate labor union or State apprenticeship council for more information.

Private employment agencies and career consultants. These agencies can be helpful, but they may charge you for their services. Most operate on a commission basis, with the fee dependent upon a percentage of the salary paid to a successful applicant. You or the hiring company will pay the fee. Find out the exact cost and who is responsible for paying associated fees before using the service.

Although employment agencies can help you save time and contact employers who otherwise might be difficult to locate, the costs may outweigh the benefits if you are responsible for the fee. Contacting employers directly often will generate the same type of leads that a private employment agency will provide. Consider any guarantees that the agency offers when determining if the service is worth the cost.

Community agencies. Many nonprofit organizations, including religious institutions and vocational rehabilitation agencies, offer counseling, career development, and job placement services, generally targeted to a particular group, such as women, youths, minorities, ex-offenders, or older workers.

Task 5. Match the beginning of a phrase from the left column with its ending from the right column:

1. employees get a) new contacts
2. to host workshops on b) low wages, poor working conditions
3. to apply c) job search strategy
4. Do not rely solely on d) their jobs through networking
5. to assess your occupational e) an invaluable resource.
6. to offer f) succeeds in that type of position
7. to research g) an interview
8. a type of personality that h) filled quickly
9. these ads signal i) aptitudes and interests
10. former j) purpose
11. to develop k) opens up
12. a job l) for a position
13. to obtain m) the classified ads to find a job.
14. to put smb in contact n) fair
15. a position o) employment information
16. openings may be p) with people who might hire you
17. The Internet is q) coworkers
18. potential r) prospective employer
19. to operate s) to contact the employer.
20. Do not hesitate t) employers
21. the primary u) other leads
22. to follow v) on a commission basis

Task 6. Rate the job search methods presented in the article from 1 to 12 (method 1 being the most important one, while method 12 - the least important). Justify your decision.

Can you add any other job search methods to the list?

Task 7. Paraphrase the underlined items in the text and make up 5 fresh context sentences with the ones you like most. Write a summary of the text "Job search methods".

Task 8. Choose the correct noun to fill the gaps.

Most jobs are advertised as current (1). They appear in the local and national (2), trade (3), and specialist career publications. In addition, many professional (4) offer an appointments service which can help job seekers find a suitable (5) in a particular (6). Recruitment (7) hold details of a wide range of vacancies, and possibly local training (8). The Internet is a valuable (9) not only for vacancies but to find background information on companies.

Approximately one third of jobs are never advertised, but may be found by approaching a company directly. This is called a speculative (10), and is common among students starting at the bottom of the career (11).

Finally, don't forget to use your personal (12)!

1) position application vacancies

2) press bodies resource

3) contacts journals resource

4) bodies contacts agency

5) position application vacancies

6) industry ladder schemes

7) bodies contacts agencies

8) industry ladder schemes

9) press journals resource

10) position application vacancies

11) industry ladder schemes

12) bodies contacts agencies

Task 9. Test each other. Look at the key words below. With your partner try to recall exactly how these were used in the article:

· Networking

· Employer

· Classified ads

· Mock interviews

· Invaluable resource

· Employment information

Be ready to retell the text paying your special attention to the key points above.



A. occupation - job - work - career - position | Getting Started | CAREER AND PERSONALITY | Matching Personality to Career | Become broadly literate. | Be willing to change and adapt. | REVISION | LOOKING FOR A JOB | Unsocial hours; late shift; take a break; set up a business; bed and breakfast | JOB-HUNTING |

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