I. Analyse the given cases of metaphor from all sides mentioned above-semantics, originality expressiveness, syntactic function, vividness and elaboration of the created image. Pay attention to the manner in which two objects (actions) are identified: with both named or only one - the metaphorized one - presented explicitly:
1. She looked down on Gopher Prairie. The snow stretching without break from street to devouring prairie beyond, wiped out the town's pretence of being a shelter. The houses were black specks on a white sheet.
2. And the skirts! What a sight were those skirts! They were nothing but vast decorated pyramids; on the summit of each was stuck the upper half of a princess.
3. I was staring directly in front of me. at the back of the driver's neck, which was a relief map of boil scars.
4. She was handsome in a rather leonine way. Where this girl was a lioness, the other was a panther-lithe and quick.
5. His voice was a dagger of corroded brass.
6. Wisdom has reference only to the past. The future remains forever a unite field for mistakes. You can't know beforehand.
7. He felt the first watery eggs of sweat moistening the palms of his hands.
8. At the last moment before the windy collapse of the day, I myself took the road down.
9. The man stood there in the middle of the street with the deserted dawnlit boulevard telescoping out behind him.
10. Leaving Daniel to his fate, she was conscious of joy springing in her heart.
II. Indicate metonymies, state the type of relations between die object named and the object implied, which they represent, also pay attention to the degree of their originality, and to their syntactical function:
1. He went about her room, after his introduction, looking at her pictures, her bronzes and clays, asking after the creator of this, the painter of that, where a third thing came from.
2. She wanted to have a lot of children, and she was glad that things were that way, that the Church approved. Then the little girl died. Nancy broke with Rome the day her baby died. It was a secret break, but no Catholic breaks with Rome casually.
3. "Evelyn Clasgow, get up out of that chair this minute». The girl looked up from her book.
"What's the matter?"
"Your satin. The skirt'll be a mass of wrinkles in the back».
4. Except for a lack of youth, the guests had no common theme, they seemed strangers among strangers; indeed, each face, on entering, had struggled to conceal dismay at seeing others there.
5. She saw around her, clustered about the white tables, multitudes of violently red lips, powdered cheeks, cold, hard eyes, self-possessed arrogant faces, and insolent bosoms.
6. Dinah, a slim, fresh, pale eighteen, was pliant and yet fragile.
7. The man looked a rather old forty-five, for he was already going grey.
8. The delicatessen owner was a jolly fifty.
III. Analyse various cases of play on words, indicate which type is used, how it is created, what effect it adds to the utterance:
1. After a while and a cake he crept nervously to the door of the parlour. (A. T.)
2 There are two things I look for jn a man. A sympathetic character and full lips. (I.Sh.)
3. Dorothy, at my statement, had clapped her hand over her mouth to hold down laughter and chewing gum. (Jn.B.)
4. I believed all men were brothers; she thought all men were husbands. I gave the whole mess up. (Jn.B.)
5. In December, 1960, Naval Aviation News, a well-known special publication, explained why "a ship" is referred to as "she": Because there's always a bustle around her; because there's usually a gang of men with her; because she has waist and stays; because it takes a good man to handle her right; because she shows her topsides, hides her bottom and when coming into port, always heads for the buyos." (N.)
6. When I am dead, I hope it may be said:
"His sins were scarlet, but his books were read." (H. B.)
7. Most women up London nowadays seem to furnish their rooms with nothing but orchids, foreigners and French novels. (O.W.)
8. I'm full of poetry now. Rot and poetry. Rotten poetry. (H )
9. "Bren, I'm not planning anything. I haven't planned a thing in three years... I'm - I'm not a planner. I'm a liver."
"I'm a pancreas," she said. "I'm a -" and she kissed the absurd game away. (Ph. R.)
10. "Someone at the door," he said, blinking.
"Some four, I should say by the sound," said Fili. (A. T.)
11. He may be poor and shabby, but beneath those ragged trousers beats a heart of gold. (E.)
12. Babbitt respected bigness in anything: in mountains, jewels, muscles, wealth or words. (S.L.)
IV. In the following excerpts you will find mainly examples of verbal irony. Explain what conditions made the realization of the opposite evaluation possible. Pay attention to the part of speech which is used in irony, also its syntactical function:
1. The book was entitled Murder at Milbury Manor and was a whodunit of the more abstruse type, in which everything turns on whether a certain character, by catching the three-forty-three train at Hilbury and changing into the four-sixteen at Milbury, could have reached Silbury by five-twenty-seven, which would have given him just time to disguise himself and be sticking knives into people at Bilbury by six-thirty-eight. (P.G.W.)
2. When the, war broke out she took down the signed photograph of the Kaiser and, with some solemnity, hung it in the men-servants' lavatory; it was her one combative action. (E.W.)
3. "I had a plot, a scheme, a little quiet piece of enjoyment afoot, of which the very cream and essence was that this old man and grandchild should be as poor as frozen rats," and Mr. Brass revealed the whole story, making himself out to be rather a saintlike holy character. (D.)
4. The lift held two people and rose slowly, groaning with diffidence. (I.M.)
5. England has been in a dreadful state for some weeks. Lord Coodle would go out. Sir Thomas Doodle wouldn't come in, and there being nobody in Great Britain (to speak of) except Coodle and Doodle, there has been no Government (D.)
6. From her earliest infancy Gertrude was brought up by her aunt. Her aunt had carefully instructed her to Christian principles. She had also taught her Mohammedanism, to make sure. (L.)
7. She's a charming middle-aged lady with a face like a bucket of mud and if she has washed her hair since Coolidge's second term, I'll eat my spare tire, rim and all. (R.Ch.)
8. With all the expressiveness of a stone Welsh stared at him another twenty seconds apparently hoping to see him gag. (R.Ch.)
Лабораторная работа № 5. (2 ч.)
Pragmatics. Rhetoric. Stylistics | Stylistic Variation and Pragmatics | Re-evaluation of Idioms | Non-poetic epigrams | Common quotation sources | ADDITIONAL NOTES | Б) дополнительная | | | EXERCISES |