I. This part of the assignment consists of a number of sentences, in which some part or the whole is in bold print. Each sentence is followed by five alternative versions of the marked portion. Select the alternative you think both the most effective and most correct to the requirements of standard written English. Do not select the answer which changes the meaning of the original sentence.
1. Specialists predicted correctly that big savings in the consumption of gasoline would be achieved if spending was limited to 55 miles per hour.
a) speeding did not exceed
b) speeding by motorists was to be limited to
c) motorists limited their speed to
d) a motorist would limit his speed to
2. Inflation in the United States has not and, we hope, never will reach a rate of 20 percent a year.
a) and hopefully will never reach
b) reach and, we hope, never will reach
c) reached and we will hope that it will never
d) and we hope it will never reach
II. For the following question, choose the best answer among the listed alternatives.
2. In all developing countries, the initial trade policy was to develop domestic industries whose production would replace imports. This was a natural and logical strategy, given that domestic demand is known and domestic production could be easily protected from external competition through high tariffs, quotas, or subsidies of various kinds.
Which of the following would weaken the initial trade policy?
a) Domestic demand may be unknown.
b) Quotas are more regressive than tariffs.
c) A protectionalist policy is favourable only in the developing countries, not in economically advanced countries.
d) Fast economic growth provides inequality of income.
III. Each of the following sentences has four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Identify the one word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct.
1. The (A) rest of the stockholders will receive (B) their reports very soon alone (C)with the copy of today's meeting(D).
2. The Benson Company is (A) now using influence to persuade (B) people buy (C) larger refrigerators(D).
3. Those of you who have signed (A) up to Prof. Daniel's Economics class should get (B) their (C)books at the library (D) as soon as possible.
4. Fifty thousand dollars a year is the average income (A) for a four-person family living (B) in a (C) medium-sized community in USA(D).
5. Knowing that (A) it would be useless to continue working (B) for a nearly bankrupt company, Louise decided quit (C) and find another type(D)of employment.
6. As the demand increases, manufacturers who (A)earlier produced only a (B) large, luxury car has to (C) make a smaller model in order to(D)be competitive in the market.
7. The prices of homes (A) are as (B) high in urban areas (C) that most young people can not afford (D) to buy them.
8. Usually executives do not require (A) that the secretary should be responsible for (B) writing all report(C) as well as(D)balancing accounting.
IV. The following sentences are incomplete. Beneath each sentence you will see four words or phrases. Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
1. ... In the world export diamonds.
a) Only little nations
b) Only few nations
c) Only a little nations
d) Only a few nations
2. It costs about sixty dollars ...
a) doing the job
b) do the job
c) to do the job
d) the job is done
3. The salary of a bus driver is much higher ...
a) in comparison with the salary of a teacher
b) than a teacher
c) than that of a teacher
d) then a teacher
4. Because the United States has little tin, ... produced in the rest of the world.
a) tin is used
b) it uses tin
c) uses of tin
d) uses tin
5. The bank sent a notice to its customers which contained ...
a) a remembrance that interest rates were to raise the following month
b) a reminder that a raise in interest rates was the following month
c) to remember that the interest rates were going up next month
d) a reminder that the interest rates would rise the following month
6. Claudius Ptolemy, ... of the first century A.D., left a good description of the geocentric theory.
a) he was an astronomer and a philosopher
b) being an astronomer and a philosopher
c) who was an astronomer and a philosopher
d) an astronomer and who was a philosopher
7. The objective in a reflector telescope ... at the bottom of the tube.
a) a mirror is placed
b) is placed a mirror
c) is a mirror placed
d) a mirror's place is
8. Employers often require that candidates should have ... .
a) not only a degree in engineering, but also two years' working experience
b) not only a degree in engineering, but two years' working experience
c) not only a degree in engineering, but two years' working experience too
d) not just a degree in engineering, but two years' working experience as well
V. Questions 1-5 are based on the following reading:
Unemployment is an important index of economic deficit and lost output, but it is more than that. For the unemployed person it is a damaging factor to human dignity and sometimes a catastrophic blow to family life. It falls most heavily on the young, the semiskilled and unskilled, the uneducated, the older workers, and the underemployed people in a low income rural area who are denied an option of securing more rewarding urban employment.
Unemployment means far greater costs to society than can be measured simply in working hours and dollars of income lost. The extra costs include disruption of the careers of young people, increased juvenile delinquency, setting up conditions that breed discrimination in employment and break equality of opportunity principle.
There are other and more subtle costs. On the side of labour, unemployment intensifies resistance to technological change and to rationalization of work rules. In general, it increases incentives for restrictive and inefficient measures to protect existing jobs.
On the side of business, the weakness of markets leads to raising prices to cover costs and to protect against foreign and domestic competition.
On the side of agriculture, higher prices are necessary to achieve income objectives when urban and industrial demand for food is depressed and lack of opportunities for jobs and higher incomes in industry keep people on the farm.
In all these cases, the problems are real and the claims understandable. But the solutions suggested raise costs and promote inefficiency.
1. According to the passage, unemployment is an index of
a) economic shortfall only
b) a number of various problems
c) economic deficit and lost output
d) economic crisis
2. The major objective of the passage is to
a) analyze the phenomenon many-sidedly
b) show that the phenomenon if negative
c) show that the phenomenon is unnatural
d) to criticize the phenomenon
3. While unemployment is damaging to many, it falls most heavily upon all except the
c) black workers
d) the underemployed
4. The cost to society of unemployment can be measured by all except
a) lost incomes
b) juvenile delinquency
c) death rate
d) disruption of careers
5. According to the passage, one of the typical business reactions to a recession is to
a) protect against imports
b) seek government support
c) limit business activity
d) seek trade union support
VI. Write an essay about the following topic:
Economic faculties do not teach the practical skills and knowledge that students need to start a career. Instead they get academic and theoretical education. Do you agree or disagree?
Give reasons for your choice and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and experience. Write about 150 words
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