1. It was not until the beginning of the twentieth century and the beginning of the present century that reinforced concrete really came into its own as a structural material with a great variety of uses. Great advances have been made in the knowledge of its behaviour in structures and much experience has been gained in its use so that today it is deservedly a material of importance.
2. The outstanding characteristic of concrete is that it can be manufactured readily and cast in a mould to any desired shape. It can be said to combine strength with plasticity. The addition of reinforcement or the application of the more recent technique of prestressing adds to its strength and does not decrease its plasticity.
3. Concrete has a much higher strength when it is under compression, than it has when it is subjected to tension. In fact its tensile strength is only one-tenth of its compressive strength. Its ability to sustain shearing forces is also frequently inadequate. The purpose of reinforcing is to provide a material with a high tensile strength which can be cast in the concrete in such a way that it is able to take the tensile and shear stresses which would otherwise have to be taken by the concrete, and at the same time allows full advantage to be taken of the concrete's high compressive strength.
4. Prestressed concrete has captured the imagination of many designers for several reasons. It enables lighter construction than ordinary reinforced work. This means that not only is less material required in prestressed members, but that reduced weight of the members makes for lighter columns and foundations. Less steel is required than in ordinary reinforced concrete. The lightness of prestressed concrete also makes it particularly useful for precast work. It is not subject to cracking, so that there is little danger of corrosion of prestressing wires, and the concrete will not weather easily.
5.Prestressed concrete depends for its reliability on first-class control of the concrete aggregates and mix proportions, the placing of the concrete, the quality of the prestressing wires or bars and the application of the precise degree of pre-stress to the wires. These requirements make it particularly suitable for factory production.
6. The idea of ??prestressing is an extremely simple one. If one has a material that has no tensile strength it will fracture immediately it is called on to take tension. If, however, the material is given an initial compression, then, when the tension force is applied the material will be able to withstand the tension provided it does not exceed the initial compression.
7. The great merit of prestressed concrete is that, in giving to the concrete itself an effective tensile strength, it enables all the concrete to contribute to the strength of the member, unlike reinforced work where only the concrete in compression is contributing.
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On what does prestressed concrete depend for its reliability?
Контрольна робота № 5
(Для спеціальностей ЛХФ)
V. Прочитайте 5 абзац тексту і відпишіть на наступний | THE FIRST BALLOONS | Перепишіть і письмово переведіть 5,6,7 абзаци тексту. | The sole proprietor | Planned economics | Mixed economics | Market economics | Types of Buildings | Residential and Industrial Buildings | THE CONSTRUCTION OF A BUILDING |