1. Types of buildings depend upon social formations and may be classified according to the role in the community. The types of buildings may be domestic, educational, office, industrial, recreational, etc. The type and the function of a building govern its design, building materials and techniques. But the common and necessary conditions are: (1) its suitability to use by human beings in general and its adaptability to particular human activities (2) the stability and permanence of its construction.
2. Speaking of residential construction we must say that the apartment houses are mostly built to suit urban conditions. Group housing provides home for many families and is at once public and private. The techniques of construction or the methods by which structures are formed from particular materials are influenced not only by the total technological development of society.
3. The evolution of techniques is conditioned by two factors: one is economic - the search for a maximum of stability and durability in building with minimum of materials, labour and time; the other is expressive - the desire to produce meaningful form. Techniques evolve rapidly when economic requirements suggest new expressive forms or when the conception of new forms demands new procedures.
4. Large hosing programs have tended to stimulate technological change in the building industry. Craft operations at the building site are being replaced by mechanized operation at the factory and houses are increasingly becoming assemblages of factory-made elements. Windows and doors, once made and fitted by carpenters at the site now arrive from a factory fitted and finished with hardware and glass, ready to be set in place. Modular design (i.e. design in which the elements are dimensioned in combinations of a fixed unit) has led to standardization of elements, interchangeability of parts and increased possibilities for mass production, with resultant economies. A wide variety of mass-produced elements from which substantial portions of the house can be assembled are now available. Examples are kitchen cabinets and mechanical equipment and window and door units. Entire apartment assemblages are available and are being used to an increasing extent. These techniques aim at a higher output of better structures at lower cost.
5.The high degree of mechanization and standardization is successfully achieved by reinforced concrete blocks and units. Reinforced concrete home are produced by a variety of construction methods. Various methods of constructing reinforced concrete houses involve extensive use of large sections manufactured in heavily mechanized factories and erected at the site.
II Прочитайте 5-ий абзац тексту і письмово дайте відповідь на наступне питання:
How is the high degree of mechanization and standardization achieved?
Контрольна робота № 4 | WATER TRANSPORT | V. Прочитайте 7 абзац тексту і відпишіть на наступне питання. | Перепишіть і письмово переведіть 1, 2, 3, 4 абзаци. | V. Прочитайте 5 абзац тексту і відпишіть на наступний | THE FIRST BALLOONS | Перепишіть і письмово переведіть 5,6,7 абзаци тексту. | The sole proprietor | Planned economics | Mixed economics |