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LIGHTNING

1. What is Lightning? Just how lightning is generated we can not say for sure. But we know that it's the world's, most colossal spark, created by the discharge of colossal amounts of static electricity. It can carry a punch of hundreds of millions of volts, a current of 1,000 to 100,000 amperes or more.

2. We also know that there are two basic types of lightning. The so-called "cold" variety has extremely high voltages, combined with relatively low amperages. It hits and disappears within 1 / 10,000th of a second. It does not often start fires, but the enormous pressure of its passage can literally explode whatever it hits. "Hot" lightning, on the other hand, has extremely high amperage but relatively low voltage. With a temperature as high as several thousand degrees, this is the type that almost invariably starts fires.

3. Like all electric sparks, lightning results when the potential between negative and positive charges becomes great enough to cause arcing. In some cases, the arcing goes through a barrier of air between the negative charge in a storm cloud and the positive charge of the .earth. While we do not know the exact mechanics by which this potential is built up, we do know the rough sequence of events.

4. A thunderstorm is generated when a layer of cool air overruns a mass of low-lying, moist, warm air. The warm air tends to rise through the cool air, causing its moisture to condense into water droplets. This movement of air current against air current -and possibly of droplet against droplet - generates large quantities of static electricity.

5. Lightning going through such non-conductors as wood or brick meets with tremendous electrical resistance. But the massive electrical energy contained in the lightning smashes through this resistance. In the process it generates enough heat to set fire to - or perhaps even melt - the structure it hits.

6. Protection System. If the lightning hits a good electrical conductor, however, it takes the path of least resistance, and its energy is carried harmlessly into the ground.

7. The objects which shorten the gap between the descending negative stroke leaders and the earth's positive potential form the ideal basis for a protection system. In fact, the obvious thing to do is to make part of that system the highest point on the house.

8. This highest point is familiarly known as the lightning rod. The modern version of Benjamin Franklin's invention is a far cry from the large creations of earlier days. It even goes by a different name - the air terminal. Today's air terminal is pencil-thin and pointed, designed to be as small as possible.

V. Прочитайте 7-ий абзац тексту і відпишіть на наступне питання:

What kind of objects form the ideal basis for a system?

 



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