Particles usually refer to the word (or, sometimes, phrase) immediately following and give special prominence to the notion expressed by this word (or phrase), or single it out in some other way, depending on the meaning of the particle.
The question of the place of a particle in sentence structure remains unsolved. The following three solutions are possible:
(1) a particle is a separate secondary member of the sentence, which should be given a special name;
(2) a particle is an element in the part of the sentence which is formed by the word (or phrase) to which the particle refers (thus the particle may be an element of the subject, predicate, object, etc.);
(3) a particle neither makes up a special part of the sentence, nor is it an element in any part of the sentence; it stands outside the structure of the sentence and must be neglected when analysis of a sentence is given.
Interjections have for a long time been an object of controversy. There has been some doubt whether they are words of a definite language in the same sense that nouns, verbs, etc. are, and whether they are not rather involuntary outcries, not restricted to any given language but common to all human beings as biological phenomena are.
Activity 5 The English Lexicon | Activity 7 English Extends Across the World | Basic part | The Classification of Words in Post-Structural Traditional Grammar | Pronoun | Noun and Its Categories. | The Problem of Gender in English | A general outline of the adjective | The Adverb | The Verb. The Categories of Person, Number, Tense, Aspect and Temporal Correlation |