Words for the lecture: a notional part of speech, a functional part of speech, semantic, a signamic system, a subject referent, conventional, to expose, a criterion, qualitative, relative adjectives, a substantive, a finite verb, statal, actional verbs, evaluative, factual verbs, animate, inanimate nouns.
In modern linguistics, parts of speech are discriminated according to three criteria: semantic, formal and functional. This approach may be defined as complex. Thesemanticcriterion presupposes the grammatical meaning of thewhole class of words (general grammatical meaning). The formal criterion reveals paradigmatic properties: relevant grammatical categories, the form of the words, their specific inflectional and derivational features. The functional criterion concerns the syntactic function of words in the sentence and their combinability. Thus, when characterizing any part of speech we are to describe: a) its semantics; b) its morphological features; c) its syntactic peculiarities.
The lexemes of a part of speech are united by their meaning. This meaning is a category-forming one. Therefore, it is referred to as categorical meaning. Lexemes that have the meaning of substance or thingness are nouns, those having the meaning of property are adjectives; those having the meaning of process are verbs; those having the meaning of circumstantial property are adverbs. As categorical meaning is derived from lexemes, it is often called lexico-grammatical meaning. In the surface, lexico-grammatical meaning finds outward expression. For instance, the meaning of substance, or thingness, is realized by the following lexico-grammatical morphemes:-er,-ist,-ness,-ship,- ment. It is also realized by specific grammatical forms constituting the grammatical categories of number and case. These outward features are a formal criterion of classification. The functional criterion concerns the syntactic role of a word in the sentence.
In accordance with the said criteria, we can classify the words of the English language into notional and functional. To the notional parts of speech belong the noun, the adjective, the numeral, the verb, and the adverb. To the functional parts of speech belong the article, the pronoun, the preposition, the conjunction, the particle, the modal words, and the interjection.
Lecture 1 | Activity 5 The English Lexicon | Activity 7 English Extends Across the World | Noun and Its Categories. | The Problem of Gender in English | A general outline of the adjective | The Adverb | The Verb. The Categories of Person, Number, Tense, Aspect and Temporal Correlation | Functional classification | The Particle |