Ex.8. Складіть усне повідомлення (8-12 речень) англійською мовою, використовуючи текст "Examination of the Internal Organs", за темами:
· Methods of Physical Examination
· Methods of Laboratory Examinations
Упр.9. Виконайте письмовий переклад тексту, використовуючи словник.
BLOOD AND URINE TESTS
Blood for tests is usually withdrawn from a fingertip, earlobe, or a vein. Blood testing takes time and preservatives must be added to a blood specimen to preserve it for the whole laboratory testing. Quantitative laboratory blood analyses are a good guide to the patient's condition. Blood count includes indications of hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leucocytes, electrolytes, colour index, basophiles, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ШОЕ), thrombocytes, protein, sugars, bilirubin, cholesterol, blood clotting, etc.
Fresh specimens of urine should be used for all tests because changes in the compositions occur when the urine is allowed to stand, especially if it is infected.
The complete specimen should be well mixed, but not centrifuged or filtered, before taking out a portion for testing. The specimen container should be absolutely clean and free from contaminants. Physical examination of the urine should include noting its
· Quantity (averaged between 1200 and 1500 ml over 24 hours in adults)
· Colour (usually amber but can vary from pale straw to brown)
· Odour (e.g. of acetone in a diabetic, fishy in cystitis)
· Sediment (e.g. white indicates phosphates).
Routine chemical analyses of urine generally includes testing for pH (acidity), protein, sugars, glucose, ketones, blood, bilirubin, nitrite.