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higher education - upper level - lower level - the former - ( ) the latter - ( )

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1. a) a layer; b) more permanent; c) the most common; d) the server

2. a) the disk controller; b) outer space; c) a thin layer; d) a lower layer

3. a) the common emitter circuit; b) a power amplifier; c) the most powerful computer; d) more detailed local forecasts

4. a) the former computer; b) upper limit; c) laser diode; d) a thicker layer

5. a) more easily installed; b) may easily gain access; c) relatively easy; d) very easy

6. a) other devices; b) under increasing competition; c) supercomputer maker; d) more quickly replaced


1. a) most hard disks; b) the hardest materials; c) most materials

2. a) the most heat-resistant materials; b) more computing power; c) most of the electron flow

3. a) smaller electrical circuits; b) the earliest method; c) most research programs

4. a) newer technology; b) most personal computers; c) the nearest telephone switching facility

5. a) ever more powerful microcomputers; b) most notably; c) any person can attest d) most of the advances

6. a) by most definitions; b) mostly mechanical; c) for most computational tasks; d) most widely used

6. , .

1. a) Fastconnections to the Web will allow users to download more information.

b) New networks must meet the growing demand for fastertransmission speeds.

c) The fastestcomputes developed are able to perform 10 billion calculations per second.

d) Light travels fasterthan electricity.

2. a) The most importantthing in safety equipment is its dependability.

b) An importantfeature of this equipment is its weight.

c) More importantfeatures of a high level language are its ability to reflect clearly the structure of programs written in it, and its readability.

d) In these countries, students are evaluated according to their performance in individual courses where discussion and written essays figure importantly.

3. a) The latterprocedure is much more complicated than the former one.

b) In the laterevolution of multichannel fiber transmission systems, two distinct methods of multiplexing data have been introduced.

c) Wi-Fi's latestversion is many times faster than DSL or cable connections.

4. a) Another commonartificial intelligence application for multiprocessing was chess.

b) Home burglar alarms, smoke detectors, and automobile alarms are three of the most commontypes of warning systems that have come into use since the early 1970s.

c) Digital systems are much easier and smaller to design than comparable analogue circuits. This is one of the main reasons why digital systems are more commonthan analogue.

d) Personal computers are now commonlyequipped with dedicated video memory for holding high-resolution bit maps.

5. a) Wide-area networks connect computers and smaller networks to largernetworks over greater geographic areas, including different continents.

b) The largestwide-area network is the Internet, a collection of networks and gateways linking millions of computer users on every continent.

c) Organizations that have largeamounts of printed information, such as major libraries, universities, and research institutes, are working to transfer their information into databases.

d) Although in principle these were general-purpose computers, they were stilllargelyrestricted to doing tough maths problems.

' , .
bad badly worse , (the)worst,
good well better , (the)best ,
much/many more, (the)most
little, less/lesser, (the)least, at least
late, later , (the)last, (the)latest,
far, ; farther ( ) (the)farthest,
far, ; further , ; (the)furthest, ;

7. , .

1. : a) good; b) better; c) goods; d) the best

2. : a) the most; b) more; c) much; d) furthermore

3. : a) the best; b) better; c) good; d) much better

4. : a) the most; b) more; c) many; d) much more

5. : a) the worst; b) bad; c) worse; d) badly

6. : a) little; b) the least; c) less; d) at least

7. : a) far; b) farther; c) the farthest; d) further

8. : a) far; b) further; c) the furthest; d) the farthest

8. .

1. a) A less powerfullaser reads back the pictures, sound or information.

b) A pure silicon crystal is nearly an insulator - verylittleelectricity will flow through it.

c) This is the leastimportant fact.

d) Every user should know at leastsomething about firewalls.

2. a) Metals tend to be goodconductors of electricity because they usually have "free electrons" that can move easily between atoms, and electricity involves the flow of electrons.

b) Users can also get betteraccuracy with Differential GPS (DGPS), which corrects GPS signals within an average of three to five meters.

c) A router is a piece of computer hardware that determines the bestway to connect client and server computers.

d) Their potential for commercial use was wellunderstood.

e) One wireless adapter may perform substantiallybetterthan another.

3. a) The laterappearance of recordable CDs and DVDs, which can store even greater amounts of data, such as an entire feature-length motion picture on one disc, further increased multimedia capabilities for PCs.

b) They are convinced that they will be able to learn how to use the latesttechnology.

c) The lastexperiments gave us much better results than did the previous ones.

d) Pulsars, believed to be rapidly rotating neutron stars, were discovered laterin the decade.

4. a) These tiny silicon wafers can each contain hundreds of millions of microscopic electronic components and are designed for manyspecific operations.

b) Fiber-optic cables carry many times moreinformation than copper wires can.

c) Among themostadvanced integrated circuits are the microprocessors, which control everything from computers to cellular phones to digital microwave ovens.

d) Digital compression technology is moreeasily adaptable.


most + (of) ,
the most + ,
a most + , ,

Most of the modelsare valid. - .

Laser is one of the most sophisticatedinventions of man. - - .

This is a most interestingproblem. - .

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1) as + () + as2) as + () + as + 1) ... , ... 2) , , 1) This rule is as important as above rule. , .2) Boiling continued for as long as 80 hours.ʳ 80 .
not so + () + as ... , ... Old enterprises were usually not so spacious and well-equipped as new ones. , .
() + than Modern desktop personal computers are many times more powerful than the huge computers of the 1960s and 1970s. ' , ' 60- 70- 20 .
The + () ... + the + () the ... the ... The farther the grid is from the cathode, the more the plate current. , .

7. .

1. In the 1970s the first hard disks appeared, with platters as large asfour feet in diameter.

2.The largestWeb sites already use CDN technology.

3. Thin-film and thick-film ICs are larger thanmonolithic ICs but smaller thandiscrete circuits.

4. Individual bits are not stored at any one location, but instead are spread out over a much largerarea and mixed in with other bits.

5. In addition, the largerthe number of bits used to transmit information, the betterthe performance - at the cost of a decreased data rate or larger bandwidth.

III. 䳺 : (), (),.

': -ingform: a) I - processing- (?) B) - processing- (?)

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) a laughing girl > ? > 쳺 ( -ing - : : a girl who is laughing);

laughing gas > ? > ( -ing - : : gas for laughing);

b) a sleeping bird > ? > ;

a sleeping bag > ? > .

1. .

Working people, the living organism, a writing woman, a smoking carriage, a writing table, farming tools, growing children, drinking water, consulting room, the existing difficulties, a looking glass, a dancing girl, a dancing lesson.

': -ed 䳺: ) 2- > Past Simple (Active) > CK.g. processed - b) 3- > Participle II (Passive) .g. processed - ( () ()

II () , , !

', 䳺 -ed, 3- ( ), - 2- ().

.g. The results obtained differeddepending on the substance used. - .

2. . .

1. They employeda new type of robot.

2. The technique employed useda single probe.

3. Heis a qualifiedspecialist. - ³ .

3. , Participle II. .

1. The substance obtained contained some admixtures.

2. Then we discussed the quality of the machine tested.

3. The equipment produced is of high quality.

4. The device invented showed good performance.

5. The complexity of the technique involved increased considerably.

Ho: Yesterday he demonstratedimprovedmechanisms. -

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