To explore- досліджувати
Coral reef- кораловий риф
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. For at least 40,000 years before European settlement in the late 18th century, the Australian mainland and Tasmania were inhabited by around 250 language groups of indigenous Australians. After sporadic visits by fishermen from the immediate north, and discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606, the eastern half of Australia was claimed by the British in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales, founded on 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in the following years; the continent was explored, and another five largely self-governing Crown Colonies were established during the 19th century.
Australia's landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi) is on the Indo-Australian Plate. The world's smallest continent and sixth largest country by total area. The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef, lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000 kilometres (1,240 mi). Mount Augustus, claimed to be the world's largest monolith, is located in Western Australia
The population is 22 million, with approximately 60% concentrated in and around the mainland state capitals of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide. The nation's capital city is Canberra.
The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional democracy based on a federal division of powers. The form of government used in Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General at the federal level and by the Governors at the state level. Although the Constitution gives extensive executive powers to the Governor-General, these are normally exercised only on the advice of the Prime Minister. There are three branches of government, known as the separation of powers. The legislature: the Commonwealth Parliament, comprising the Queen, the Senate, and the House of Representatives.
The judiciary is the High Court of Australia and other federal courts.
The bicameral Commonwealth Parliament consists of the Queen, the Senate (the upper house) of 76 senators, and a House of Representatives (the lower house) of 150 members. Members of the lower house are elected from single-member electoral divisions, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats",
There are two major political groups that form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party, and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party.
Exercise 9. Answer the following questions:
1.What is Australia called officially?
2.What is Australia's population?
3.The national capital of Australia is Sydney, is not it?
4.What is Australia's total area?
5.What is the highest mount in Australia?
6.What is the form of government in Australia?
7.What role does Queen Elizabeth II play in Australia?
8.Whom does the executive power belong to?
9.Whom does the legislative power belong to?
10. Whom does the judicial power belong to?
11. What is the bicameral Parliament?
12. What do you know about the elections of two Houses of Australian Parliament?
Exercise 10. Give the Russian equivalents to these words and word combinations:
Mainland, numerous, sporadic visits, penal transportation, approximately, total area, system, distinct, extensive.
Exercise 11. Give the English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:
Південна півкуля, поселення, мовна група, проголошувати, само-керований, кв.км, приблизно, здійснюватися, сенат, федеральний.
Exercise 12. Insert the missing words and word combinations:
1.The Australian ... and Tasmania were inhabited by around 250 language groups.
2.The ... half of Australia was claimed by the British in 1770.
3.Australia's landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi) is on the ... Plate.
4.The world's largest ... ..., lies a short distance off the north-east coast.
5.The nation's ... city is Canberra.
6.The form of government used in Australia is a ... with a parliamentary system of government.
7.There are three branches of government, known as the ... of powers.
8.The ... is the High Court of Australia and other federal courts.
9.The ... Commonwealth Parliament consists of the Queen, the Senate, and a House of ... of 150 members.
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