As an attribute both the active and the passive Infinitive are possible. If the subject of the sentence denotes the person who has to do the action expressed by the Infinitive-attribute, the attribute is expressed by an active Infinitive.
I have a friend to rely upon. У мене є один, На якого я можу покластися.
Tom-Builder said, «I have a cathedral to build». Том-Будівельник сказав: «Мені треба побудувати собор».
Sometimes the Infinitive-attribute is not translated into Russian at all.
I have a lot of work to do. Мені треба зробити багато роботи.
As an attribute the Infinitive is more common in English than in Russian.
a) As an attribute the Infinitive can modify: both abstract and concrete nouns:
I have no desire to go there. У мене немає бажання йти туди.
It's time to have dinner. пора обідати.
He is not a man to be trusted. Він не та людина, якій можна довіряти.
The best thing to do was to leave at once. Найкраще, що можна було зробити, - Відразу піти.
b) As an attribute the Infinitive can modify: the noun-substitute one:
He is the one to be trusted. Йому можна (слід) довіряти.
c) As an attribute the Infinitive can modify: compound indefinite and universal pronouns in -body, -thing, -one:
We had nothing to lose. Нам нема чого було втрачати.
Have you got anything to read? У тебе є що-небудь (що можна) почитати?
She is someone to admire. нею можна захоплюватися.
Чи не had everything to make his life happy. У нього було все, що могло зробити його життя щасливим.
d) As an attribute the Infinitive can modify: ordinal numerals (especially the first):
Hob is always the last to come to the lesson and the first to leave. Хоб завжди приходить на заняття останнім и першим йде.
e) As an attribute the Infinitive can modify: substantivised adjectives next, last, much, little, little more, enough.
I've got no more (little more) to add. Мені більше нічого додати. (Я мало що можу додати.)
I do not think he has much to gain by it. He думаю, що він багато може виграти за рахунок цього.
The Infinitive-attribute may be expressed by a conjunctive Infinitive phrase:
|I have no idea who||to||address.|
|how||to||find the answer.|
|whether||to||go there or not.|
As seen from the above examples the Infinitive in the function of an attribute almost always has some modal meaning of obligation or possibility.
Exercise 67. Underline the Infinitive or the Infinitive phrase used as an attribute and the word modified. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. She is the right woman to marry. 2. Laura was the last to arrive though nobody expected her to come. 3. We have got no wish to support them as they are not the people to be trusted. 4. You'd better find somebody to walk your dog. 5. Brian is not a person to act rapidly. 6. I've got so much to tell you. 7. It is not a question to be discussed now. 8. Tom has nobody to pick him up at the station. 9. This is just the time to pay them a return visit. 10. The man made me a sign to approach him and help him with the load. 11. Nobody wanted to be the first to speak and sound foolish. 12. There is something to be done before we leave. 13. We have very little to give you. You'd better find another family to take care of you. 14. Offer Sam this job. He is the one to rely upon. 15. The next thing to do is to go to the Embassy and get a visa. 16. His lecture leaves much to be desired. 17. We've got nothing to lose but our pride. 18. He was constantly thinking of the things to say to her. 19. His inability to impose his will on them made him feel unimportant. 20. There remains nothing more to be done.
Exercise 68. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the way of rendering the Infinitive as an attribute.
Choose the sentences in which the Infinitive-attribute can be translated by
1) an Infinitive
He gave me a chance to choose the right time for that. Він дав мені можливість вибрати для цього відповідний час.
2) A subordinate attributive clause containing a modal verb, a modal verb in the Subjunctive Mood, or a modal word.
Here's the book to be read on the train. Ось книга, яку можна почитати в поїзді.
3) A subordinate attributive clause containing a verb in Future Simple.
The book to be published next year is supposed to be a best-seller. Вважають, що книга, яка буде видана на майбутній рік, стане бестселером.
4) A subordinate clause containing a verb in the Subjunctive Mood.
In what I say there's nothing to offend you. У тому, що я говорю, немає нічого, що образило б Вас (могло б Вас образити.)
5) A simple predicate in a simple sentence.
He was the next to answer. Він відповідав наступним.
6) It is not translated at all.
We have lots of things to do. У нас багато справ.
1. Не got the permission to organize a special committee. 2. If you are going sightseeing you may be given a guide book to help you on your tour round the city. 3. The museum to be built here will house a very interesting collection of portraits by some European painters. 4. In his words there was nothing to insult you. 5. Miss Siemens was the first to discover that he had disappeared. 6. I liked his idea first to visit London and then to go to Paris by boat. 7. It is not the novel to be read in a day. 8. This student was the last to borrow the book from the library. 9. There are three more games to be played this summer and our team is likely to get the cup. 10. There was nothing to see here and we decided to leave the place. 11. She is the only one to be addressed in this situation. 12. He is the youngest boy to be chosen for the leading part. 13. She is not the girl to have a date with. 14. There's no need to discuss this problem until he comes. 15. He's got everything to be happy and nothing to worry about. 16. I had no intention to disturb you. I just wanted to give you some instructions how to handle the machine.17. Her father set up a small travel agency and now he has a lot of work to do.
Exercise 69. Match the parts of the sentences choosing the proper attribute expressed by an Infinitive or an Infinitive phrase.
1. She is the woman 1. to be solved immediately.
2. I've got little money 2. to be engaged to.
3. He has nobody 3. to be done.
4. Lucy is not a girl 4. to lend you.
5. We have a problem 5. to fall in love at first sight.
6. It is the first thing 6. to promote him.
7. This is a chance 7. to trust.
8. We have a good idea 8. to be dismissed.
9. Simon was the last 9. to show your good points.
10. One should have someone 10. what to tell her when she comes.
Exercise 70. Match the two corresponding parts of the sentences:
I have no spoon to write with.
I have no knife to write with on the blackboard.
I have no pen to eat with.
I have no pencil to cut with.
I have no chalk to make fire with.
I have no matches to draw with.
I have no friend to go to.
I have no place to talk to.
I have no relatives to live in.
I have no parents to love.
I have no husband / wife to help me.
She has a lot of toys to travel with.
She has a lot of things to go skiing with.
She has a lot of plans to play with.
She has a lot of friends to dream of.
There are a lot of nice pictures to read.
There are a lot of books to choose from.
There are a lot of offers to try on.
There are a lot of hats to enjoy.
It's a good thing to admire.
It's a good place to dream of.
It's a good offer to go to.
That's a person to do.
He's a friend to turn to.
Exercise 71. Paraphrase the sentences using a passive Infinitive as attribute.
Model: A lot of things should be done before we leave. - There are a lot of things to be done before we leave. *
* Note that an Active Infinitive is also possible in this case. There are a lot of things to do before we leave.
1. A lot of papers should be typed before the boss comes. 2. Some problems should be solved before we sign an agreement. 3. A couple of chairs should be fetched. 4. A lot of things should be packed before he arrives. 5. Three students should be asked at the seminar. 6. Three tapes should be listened to before we start a class. 7. Lots of rules should be revised before we have a test. 8. Five children should be examined by a doctor. 9. A lot of pictures should be looked through before we find the one we need. 10. Two more people should be invited. 11. Several more calls should be given before we arrange everything.
Exercise 72. Make up a sentence using an Infinitive as attribute.
|1.||I haveHe hasWe've got||a rightan aiman ideaa purposea wish||to disturb you.to know the truth.to do so.to vote.to get the post.to hurt you.to trust you.to judge them.to waste the money.to accuse him.to tell them the truth.to write a novel.to think about it.to go on business to Paris.|
|I haveShe had||no purposeno inclinationno wishno rightno time|
|We know of herhistheir||wishidea|
|to buy a cottage.to go to university.to move in.to get married.to fix the wheel.|
|2.||There's (always) There must be There will be||a temptationa wayno waysomethingnothingsomebodynobody||to judge somebody.to buy (something) to gossip.to solve the problem.to talk with / about.to phone.to drink.to hide.to fight for.|
|3.||I needI wantI''d like to have||a placea booka frienda newspapera mana familya childa dog||to read (on thetrain / plane) .to talk to.to live in.to rely upon.to defend me.to take care of.to look after.to love.|
|4.||Val Sid||iswas (always)||iswas (always) the firstthe secondthe only onethe last||to speak at theseminar.to be given help.to get dressed.to give me а lift.to leave.to carry a heavy bag for me.to be noticed.to win the game.to unpack his luggage.|
Exercise 73. Paraphrase the sentences. Use an Infinitive or an Infinitive phrase as attribute. Make all the necessary changes.
Model: They did not want to attend his lecture. (Wish)) - They had no wish tо attend his lecture.
1. It was impossible to book a ticket in advance. (Possibility) 2. I can not remember whether you promised to lend him some money. (Promise) 3. The group was allowed to visit the Memorial flat. (Permission) 4. The manager's requirement was that we should check the results immediately and we had to obey. (Requirement) 5. She desired to adopt the child and nothing could make her refuse to do it. (Desire) 6. The guests arrived one after another. Mrs. Andrew was the first one. Then the Lemons appeared. Mr. Socks was the last one as usual. The only man who did not arrive in time was Martin. (The first, the next ...) 7. The matter was that he did not know what to start with. (Idea) 8. You can not argue with Dick. You should just obey him without any questions. (Person) 9. There are so many other things I should do before my wife comes back. (Things) 10. The child was told to recite a very long and dull poem and he refused to do it. (Wish) 11. We were short of time and could not go to see them off. (Time)
Exercise 74. Paraphrase the following sentences in such a way as to use an Infinitive-attribute.
Model: We must do several things today. - There are several things to do today. or We have several things to do today.
1. Ted has a lot of problems which he must solve as soon as possible. Ted has a lot of problems ... 2. Jane has not got anybody who she could turn to. Jane has not got anybody ... 3. There was a gentleman who I could give the letter to. There was a gentleman ... 4. I can not rely on him. - He is not a person ... 5. I had some friends who I could rely on. I had some friends ... 6. John is always complaining of something. John has always something ... 7. I had several people who (m) I wanted to visit. I had several people ... 8. There was only one man Fred could ask for help. There was only one person ... 9. We must read two books by this author. There are two books ... 10. We have no money with which we can start business. We have no money ...
Exercise 75. Complete the sentences using a conjunctive Infinitive phrase as attribute.
Model: She has no idea ... (what). She has no idea what to say.
1. Leo had an idea ... (how). 2. Little children have no idea ... (what). 3. His suggestion ... (where) was approved of by everybody. 4. Dad always gives me advice ... (what). 5. This is the station ... (where). 6. Could you give me an idea ... (whom). 7. We badly need the information ... (when).
Exercise 76. Paraphrase the following sentences. Use an Infinitive-attribute after the first, the second, the next, the last, the only, the oldest, the most famous, etc.
Model: New Zealand was the first country which gave women the vote. - New Zealand was the first to give women the vote.
1. Who was the last person who saw the young man alive? 2. Who was the first person who found the man? 3. The first ambulance which arrived at the scene of accident was that one. 4. The ambulance was the only one which arrived at the scene in no time. 5. He is the most famous actor who took part in the performance. 6. Tretyak was the most famous goalkeeper who played in Russian team. 7. They were the first people who arrived at the scene of accident. 8. They offered their help. No one else did. - They were the only people ... 9. My friend got a pay rise. No one else did. - My friend was the only one ... 10. The captain left the ship after everyone else had. - The captain was the last ... 11. Mrs. Thatcher was the Prime Minister. No other woman in Great Britain had been Prime Minister before. - Mrs. Thatcher was the only woman ... 12. First I took the examination and then Paul did. 13. Who was the oldest astronaut who flew into space? 14. No newspaper appeared that day, only The Times. - The Times was the only newspaper ... 15. My little sister swam a length of the pool. No other girl as young as she did it. - My little sister was the only girl ... 16. Who has a pen or a pencil to spare? I need something I could write with. 17. I have brought you a book which you can read now, but be sure and return it by Saturday. 18. Soon we found that there was another complicated problem that we were to consider. 19. The girl was quite young when both her parents died and she remained alone with two younger brothers whom she had to take care of. 20. The boy had many toys which he could play with. 21. I have no books which I can read. 22. Is there anybody who will help you with your spelling? 23. Do not forget that she has a baby which she must take care of. 24. Have you got anything that you want to say on this subject? 25. There was nothing that he could do except go home. 26. I have only a few minutes in which I can explain these words to you. 27. I have an examination which I must take soon, so I can not go to the theatre with you. 28. King Lear decided to have a hundred knights who would serve him after he had divided up his kingdom. 29. Here is something which will warm you up. 30. Here is a new brush which you will clean your teeth with. 31. Here are some more facts which will prove that your theory is correct. 32. Here is something which you can rub on your hands. It will soften them. 33. Here are some screws with which you can fasten the shelves to the wall. 34. Here are some tablets which will relieve your headache. 35. Here are some articles which must be translated for tomorrow.
Exercise 77.Make a statement or ask a question. Use an Infinitive-attribute characterizing the following notions. Let your partner respond to what you are saying.
Model: money / to spend to spare
- Have you got any money to spare? I have not got enough. I need another ten pounds.
- Sorry, I'm pressed for money myself.
time / to spare, to spend.
medicine / to take, to buy.
a family / to look after
a job / to give, to get
a speech therapist / to consult, to talk to
a diet / to keep
a backpack / to use, to lend
Exercise 78. Work in pairs. Imagine you are talking with a child asking you dozens of questions about all sorts of things he has no idea of. You have to answer his questions. Use an Infinitive as attribute in your answers.
Model: - Mum, what's a clock?
- Well, my sweet. It's a thing to show time.
- And what's time, mummy?
- Oh, Tommy, it's something to be shown by a clock.
- But what's a clock, then?
- Oh, dear! It's something to look at from time to time to know the time.
a shop (the baker s the butcher's the grocer's, etc.)
a garden; a car; a TV set; a radio; a pen; a book; a sofa; a mushroom; an orange; cola
Exercise 79. Translate the sentences into English using an Infinitive or an Infinitive phrase as an attribute.
1. У батька завжди багато справ і у нього зовсім немає часу допомагати матері по будинку. 2. Нічого не поробиш. Доведеться все розповісти їм, і мені є, що сказати цій родині. 3. Коли-небудь у тебе будуть дружина, діти, про яких тобі доведеться піклуватися. 4. У нього є хто-небудь, з ким він може поділитися своїми проблемами? 5. Намір Сенді виїхати з Кардіффа важко було зрозуміти. У неї було все для щастя. 6. Нам дали перелік книг, які необхідно було прочитати до іспиту. 7. Його завжди запитують останнім, і він зазвичай говорить те, на що треба звернути увагу. 8. Вони цінують ваше бажання принести їм задоволення і запросити їх на пікнік. 9. Це не та людина, з яким варто мати справу. 10. Не можу приховати своє бажання відвезти Вас звідси і дати Вам можливість жити без всяких проблем і турбот. 11. Неможливо було знайти спосіб, щоб змусити його бути відвертим зі мною. 12. У її промовах не було нічого, що могло б викликати наше роздратування. 13. Я не знав нікого, хто міг би проштовхнути мою пропозицію. 14. Найкраще, що можна зробити, це дати їм спокій. 15. У тебе є що-небудь цікаве почитати? Тільки не пропонуй мені детектив. Це не те, що слід читати перед сном. 16. Не маю поняття, куди вступати і як готуватися до іспитів.
THE FORMS OF THE INFINITIVE | Model: He is sorry that he has said it.He is sorry to have said it. | Would rather ( 'd rather) nothing but | THE INFINITIVE AS THE SUBJECT | THE INFINITIVE AS PREDICATIVE | THE INFINITIVE AS PART OF A PREDICATIVE | THE INFINITIVE AS PART OF A COMPOUND VERBAL PREDICATE | Seem, appear (здаватися) prove, turn out (виявитися) happen, chance (трапитися) | THE INFINITIVE AS OBJECT | THE INFINITIVE AS ADVERBIAL MODIFIER OF RESULT OR CONSEQUENCE |