1. Nuclear engineers are concerned with shielding systems to safeguard people from the harmful effects of radiation and with the safe disposal of nuclear wastes. 2. Under this law a moving body is at rest, as far as its own inertia is concerned, as long as its motion continues at the same speed and in the same direction. 3. Copying architectural and engineering drawings once required many hours of work. 4. Engineers measure waterpower in terms of horsepower. 5. Solar energy is the result of thermonuclear fusion reactions deep within the sun. 6. One way to overcome this problem is to house computers in a special casing that prevents radio waves from getting out. 7. Organic chemists are investigating semiconducting organic polymers in the hope of devising plastic transistors patterned after them. 8. Operators use their own biological control systems to regulate the movements of the machines. 9. Technology may be defined as the process by which human beings fashion tools and machines to change, manipulate, and control their environment. 10. These advances led to reduced dependence on agricultural and production labor, thus freeing people for other things such as the building of the great Gothic cathedrals. 11. Meteorological satellites aid in weather forecasting. 12. The crew of a manned spacecraft must have a gas for breathing, food, water, and some means of disposing of human waste. 13. Acceleration affects voluntary muscular activity, blood circulation, and visual acuity. Critical controls are therefore placed within easy reach of astronauts' couches.
Завдання для самостійної підготовки:
Military science incorporates knowledge of different levels. That is why, in proving military knowledge, it is expedient to reckon with its specificity (its level, its sphere) and with the capacity for using already proved military knowledge, which is "contiguous" to it by level and domain, or the knowledge of other sciences. It is essential to obey corrective transition from one military knowledge level to another, from one of its domains to another. It is in the nature of things that the criteria and essentials of proof, in different subdisciplines of military science, also make themselves manifest in a different subdisciplines of military science, also make themselves manifest in a different way. The abstractness of architecture of much of fundamental military knowledge considerably enhances the role of logical tools of proof. Provisions of military science, field manuals function as applied logic. But, military praxis continues to be the criterion of truth, the basis of proof of military knowledge in peacetime as well.
Close linkage of war and army doctrine, of military science with other sciences favorably affects the capacity for using provisions of other sciences for the proof of categories and laws of military knowledge. Thus, social science data provide material to validate the scientific treatment of laws of war and armed struggle, decisions about troop command and control and the formation of high moral fighting qualities of military personnel. Military theoreticians and practitioners use materials of natural and engineering sciences to prove knowledge, which makes it possible to improve effectively the material and technical base of military art. Social sciences and sciences examining human bioorganic qualities furnish with arguments for the proof of military knowledge, which most adequately determines man's potentialities in war. Conclusions of economic science help examine the economic aspect of war. Provisions of civil history are widely used to prove findings of the cognitive activity of military historians. Mathematical knowledge provides means for conducting mental, mathematical experiments pertaining to indirect kinds of the validation of military scientific knowledge. Naturally, military science data can also serve for the vindication of provisions of other sciences.
The wide use of scientific philosophy to ensure the integrity of knowledge of military art is the important peculiarity of the proof of military knowledge, since philosophic knowledge represents universal knowledge, which is the result of the apprehension of entire human activity. Most often, military science has recourse to philosophy for ascertaining the validity of its theoretical arsenal in the time of sweeping transformations of military art, when decisive stocktaking is under way. The use of laws, categories and principles of scientific philosophy, of laws and rules of formal logic provides the justification and proof of military scientific knowledge about causes, essence, character, role of wars, regularities of their course and outcome, the essence, and functions of modern armies. In using philosophic provisions in the proof of military knowledge, one should take into consideration the specificity of military knowledge: where scientific philosophy provisions directly prove military philosophic knowledge, the validity of data of special military knowledge data shall be established by means of some indirect linkages.
Since much of military knowledge is directed towards the future, as its subject and object, above all, involve war, preparation for wars, this fact leaves its imprint on the nature of proof of military knowledge. However, as you know, wars are not waged on the constant basis. In addition, no war is the exact replica of another one. That is why perceptions about possible future military operations have the tinge of hypothetic knowledge. Besides, the activity of the military chief takes place in conditions, when aims of contending sides are diametrically opposed. This fact inevitably leads to the occurrence of formerly unforeseen situation, to the need for surveying it and for uncovering enemy design. The outcome of battle (operation) depends, to a considerable extent, on the degree of disclosure of enemy intentions, especially when the enemy appears to seize the initiative.
Заняття № 7