1. Industrialization usually goes hand in hand with agrarian reform, if for no other reason than that an agrarian revolution allows a relatively small agrarian labor force to feed a larger manufacturing work force. 2. Other industries such as chemicals and mining and the engineering professions also developed rapidly. 3. Technology is a major cultural determinant, no less important in shaping human lives than philosophy, religion, social organization, or political systems. In the broadest sense, these forces are also aspects of technology. 4. Under these circumstances private inventors are likely to play a progressively smaller role in bringing about innovation, although they are not likely to disappear altogether. 5. Any major technological development is attended by proponents and opponents with conflicting interests, such as business, labor, the administrative and technical elite, politicians, environmentalists, economists, and public advocates. 6. The promise of technology assessment is that an impartial body such as the OTA can lay aside all vested interests and provide decision makers with rational advice as to which developments are truly in the public interest. 7. Even more effective is transfer of the technology itself, by the provision of blueprints, models, designs, patents, and other know-how and by the establishment of workshops, factories, training programs, and agricultural and engineering colleges. 8. For example, many of the biggest pharmaceutical producers in the United States are involved in the search for genetically improved plants and animals and for genetically engineered vaccines. 9. Pest populations are typically reduced immediately by the application of an effective pesticide. 10. A neutron in a nuclear reactor can meet one of several fates: it can be absorbed in the fuel, producing fission and more neutrons; it can be absorbed by non-fissionable materials in the reactor core and thus lost; it can be absorbed by a fertile material. 11. Of prime importance in their industrial impact were developments in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering. 12. The degree to which a given organism is able to acclimatize has its bases in the genetics of the organism. 13. Accounts of the actual testing of scientific theories tend to be rather technical and often require the use of statistics. 14. Far less agreement exists concerning the details of positive prescriptions for science. 15. Today, approximately 2,300 elected fellows grouped in four specialty classes pursue the same broad purposes as their Revolutionary-era predecessors.
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Specificity of proof in military science.
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Each science is known to have more or less strongly marked specificity of its proof, i.e., of establishing the validity of knowledge implicated in its laws, categories, principles, etc. For instance, the decisive role of experiment presents itself as distinctive feature of the proof in physics. Mathematical knowledge qualifies for its validity primarily due to the use of logical tools. A number of characteristic features appertain to the proof in military knowledge: concerning war (causes of wars, their essence, character, role, regularities of their course and their outcome, background of warlike preparations and preparation methods of states, their coalitions), and the army (its essence, functions, genesis, principles of personnel education and training, etc.).
The most important feature of the proof in military science is its ideologized nature, determined by the essence of war as the continuation of political relations by strong-arm methods, its causes, character, role in societal life, the essence and functions of the army, the substance and distinctive features of military science. All concepts, categories, laws and principles of the theory of war, the army and military science are related, in some or other way, to human interests and to the direction of their actions. Military science accumulates ambitions of definite social forces in the most taxing periods of societal development. The character of military science is defined by the fact that its core substance is composed of regularities, principles, methods and forms of realizing political tasks by employing warfare means.
Ideas and aims of just war, proved, brought home to people at large and embodied under certain conditions, always emerged as powerful military force, which assured victory in wars to defend fatherland. At the present time, defined and proved essential ways of defending peace and progress, the perfection of the collective activity of peace-minded states, of joint efforts of leading democratic forces, of the multifaceted proactive work of the United Nations Organization present themselves as powerful mobilizing force to strengthen the positions of those, who support the settlement of emerging problems by negotiations.
Necessity for realizing the principle of ideologized nature of military philosophic proof also stems from needs for stepping-up struggle against views of military theoreticians, who distort problems of war, peace and the army. The proof in military science is of importance in forming logical and methodological basis for the opposition of scientific theory of war and peace and non-scientific concepts, in identifying the polarity of such views about war and peace at epistemological, social political and moral ethical levels.
The strongly marked concreteness of the proof in military science is inherent in the military philosophic rationale and proof, continuing to be relevant, of the defensive nature of Russia's military doctrine, of the importance of military strategic balance of the multipolar world. (1) Concreteness requires that military cadres convincingly prove knowledge about the need for subordinating the entire activity of the military personnel of Russia's Armed Forces to interests of the state, fidelity to their principles and uncompromising attitude to defects.
Important peculiarities of military proof stem from extraordinary complexity of military knowledge. Many sciences look into war. War and army doctrine, military science proper, which represents the unified system of knowledge about preparing and conducting armed struggle for the defense of the country from aggression, are major fields of military scientific knowledge. Military art theory, which examines consistent patterns, character, principles and methods of conducting armed struggle on strategic, operational and tactical scale, constitute the core of military science.
Заняття № 6