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1. This argument is similar to one in Nertle, built on Kuto 1994. 2. An analysis such as the one presented in Kastner (ms.) will also run into difficulty. 3. This flaw presumably derives from a more fundamental one. 4. To sum up a conference as successful as this one is no mean task. 5. One may name the x-y plane the contingent plane. 6. The analysis of these constructions differs from the one proposed by Haji. 7. This is much more obvious to one who actually lives in the middle of the doing of science itself. 8. One thing is clear: this quest for the ultimate constituent of all matter may be endless. 9. Accordingly, he gives extensive treatments of these matters as well as numerous subsidiary ones. 10. Many of these studies tested other factors in addition to the ones most directly relevant to Principle C. 11. Our analysis results in a more restrictive theory, one that explains why certain structures do not occur. 12. More will not be said on this question, not a central one, at present. 13. This observation offers a response, albeit not the only one, to the question which motivated this study. 14. In fact, this attitude is one reason why science has grown so rapidly since the early part of the seventeenth century. 15. However, one should consider whether or not it may be more efficient to analyze prerecorded data directly.

Завдання для самостійної підготовки:

A programmable gun has a body supporting a handle, a trigger and a pin actuatable between a first position providing for a trigger depression to fire a bullet and a second position restraining the trigger depression. A memory stores a print identifying an authorized person's hand when such person inserts a key in the handle and then grips the handle. Hand prints of one (1) or more authorized persons, or several hand prints of one (1) person, may be stored in the memory when such persons move the key, after insertion, to individual positions and then grip the handle. When an authorized person thereafter grips the handle, that person's hand generates a print for comparison with the prints in the memory. A comparison coincidence produces a pin actuation to the first position. A subsequent gun firing is recorded in the memory as to time and as to the authorized person. When a comparison coincidence is established, the ability to fire the gun continues until such authorized person...

Patent number: 5502915

Filing date: 29 Apr 1994

Issue date: 2 Apr 1996

Inventors: Eddie S. Mendelsohn, Robert Hotto, Shlomo Caspi

1. A gun programmable to provide for its firing only by an authorized person, including, a handle, a trigger, a body supporting the handle and the trigger, an actuatable pin disposed on the body and movable between first and second stable positions and operable in the first stable position to provide for the depression of the trigger to obtain the firing of a bullet from the body and operable in the second stable position to restrain the trigger from becoming depressed, memory means for storing prints identifying a particular portion of the hand of the authorized person,

first means disposed on the handle for receiving the particular portion of the hand of the user and for producing a print of such particular portion, second means supported by the gun for comparing the prints from the memory means and the first means and for producing signals in accordance with the results of such comparison, and third means for actuating the pin to an individual one of the first and second stable positions in accordance with the signals produced by the second means, the third means being operable to maintain the actuatable pin in each of the first and second stable positions until the actuation of the actuatable pin by the third means to the other one of the first and second stable positions.

2. A gun as set forth in claim 1, means on the gun for indicating when the comparing means produces signals representing a coincidence between the prints from the memory means and the first means.

3. A gun programmable to provide for its operation only by an authorized person, including, a handle, a trigger, a body supporting the handle and the trigger, an actuatable pin disposed on the body and movable between first and second positions and operable in the first position to provide for the depression of the trigger to obtain the firing of a bullet from the body and operable in the second position to restrain the trigger from becoming depressed, memory means for storing prints identifying a particular portion of the hand of the authorized person,

first means disposed on the handle for receiving the particular portion of the hand of the user and for producing a print of such particular portion, second means supported by the gun for comparing the prints from the memory means and the first means and for producing signals in accordance with the results of such comparison, and third means for actuating the pin to an individual one of the first and second positions in accordance with the signals produced by the second means,

the second means including means for producing signals with particular characteristics when the prints from the memory means and the first means coincide, the third means including means for actuating the pin to the first position when the second means produces the signal with the particular characteristics, fourth means for updating the comparison by the second means of the print by the first means with the print from the memory means, and fifth means responsive to the failure within a particular period of time of the second means to provide signals with the particular characteristics during the updated comparison for actuating the pin to the second position.

4. A gun programmable to provide for its operation only by an authorized person, including, a handle, a trigger, a body supporting the handle and the trigger, an actuatable pin disposed on the body and movable between first and second positions and operable in the first position to provide for the depression of the trigger to obtain the firing of a bullet from the body and operable in the second position to restrain the trigger from becoming depressed, memory means for storing prints identifying a particular portion of the hand of the authorized person,

first means disposed on the handle for receiving the particular portion of the hand of the user and for producing print of such particular portion, second means supported by the gun for comparing the prints from the memory means and the first means and for producing signals in accordance with the results of such comparison, third means for actuating the pin to an individual one of the first and second positions in accordance with the signals produced by the second means, and

means for recording the print of a portion of the hand of a person who attempts to fire the gun but whose print is not recorded in the memory means.

5. A gun programmable to provide for its firing only by an authorized person, including, a body portion, a handle extending from the body portion, a trigger extending from the body portion and actuatable from a first position to a second position to obtain a firing of the gun, a pin extending from the body portion and actuatable between first and second positions and operable in the first position to provide for the actuation of the trigger between the first and second positions and operable in the second position to prevent the actuation of the trigger from the first position to the second position, memory means for storing a print of at least a particular portion of the hand of the authorized person, first means disposed on the body for receiving a print of the particular portion of the hand of the person gripping the gun and attempting to fire the gun, second means for comparing the prints in the memory means and the first means and for producing a signal when the prints coincide, third means responsive to the signal from the second means for actuating the pin from the second position to the first position and for latching the pin in the first position, and fourth means responsive to the failure of the first means to receive, in a particular period of time after the actuation of the pin from the second position, a print coinciding with a print in the memory means to the first position for actuating the pin from the first position to the second position and for latching the pin in the second position to prevent the trigger from being actuated from the first position to the second position.

6. In a combination as set forth in claim 5, a solenoid included in the third means for becoming energized upon the production of the signal by the second means and for actuating the pin to the first latched position upon becoming energized.

7. In a combination as set forth in claim 5, switch means having first and second states of operation and actuatable from the first state to the second state upon the disposition of the hand of the user on the body for providing for the operation of the first and second means in determining whether the print of the particular portion of the user's hand coincides with the print stored in the memory means. 8. In a combination as set forth in claim 5, fifth means responsive to a failure of the second means for a particular period of time to find a coincidence between the prints in the memory means and the first means after the production of the signal by the second means and after the release of the handle by the user for actuating the pin to the second position and for latching the pin in the second position.

Заняття № 3

Завдання для самостійної підготовки:

A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention.

The procedure for granting patents, the requirements placed on the patentee and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims defining the invention which must be new, inventive, and useful or industrially applicable. In many countries, certain subject areas are excluded from patents, such as business methods and mental acts. The exclusive right granted to a patentee in most countries is the right to prevent or exclude others from making, using, selling, offering to sell or importing the invention.

In a combination as set forth in claim 5, fifth means for providing individual illuminations respectively indicating the actuation of the pin to the first position, the disposition of the pin in the second position with the body of the gun being manually gripped and the inability of the gun to fire, with the gun being manually gripped, for reasons other than the non-coincidence between the prints in the storage means and the print provided by the first means.

10. A gun programmable to provide for its firing only by an authorized person, including, a body portion, a handle extending from the body portion, a trigger extending from the body portion and actuatable from a first position to a second position to obtain a firing of the gun, a pin extending from the body portion and actuatable between first and second positions and operable in the first position to provide for the actuation of the trigger between the first and second positions and operable in the second position to prevent the actuation of the trigger from the first position to the second position, memory means for storing a print of a particular portion of the hand of the authorized person, first means disposed on the handle for transferring a print of the particular portion of the hand of the authorized person to the memory means when the authorized person grips the handle to fire the gun, second means having first and second states of operation and operative in the first state for providing for a transfer by the first means of the print of the particular portion of the hand of the authorized person to the memory means and operative in the second state to prevent a transfer by the first means of the print of the particular portion of the hand of the authorized user to the memory means, and third means associated with the second means for providing for an operation of the second means in the first state at first particular periods of time and for providing for an operation of the second means in the second state at second particular periods of time different from the first particular period of time.

11. A gun as set forth in claim 10, including, third means operative upon the transfer by the first means of the print of the particular portion of the hand of the authorized person into the memory means and upon a subsequent gripping of the handle by the hand of the authorized person for comparing the print resulting from such gripping and the print recorded in the memory means to actuate the pin to the first position upon a coincidence in such comparison.

12. In a gun as set forth in claim 11, fourth means for preventing an actuation of the pin by the third means to the first position if there is no coincidence in the comparison by the third means of the print recorded by the first means in the memory means and the print produced by a subsequent gripping of the handle by a user other than the authorized user.

13. A gun programmable to provide for its firing only by an authorized person, including, a body portion, a handle extending from the body portion, a trigger extending from the body portion and actuatable from a first position to a second position to obtain a firing of the gun, a pin extending from the body portion and actuatable between first and second positions and operable in the first position to provide for the actuation of the trigger between the first and second positions and operable in the second position to prevent the actuation of the trigger from the first position to the second position, memory means for storing a print of a particular portion of the hand of the authorized person, first means disposed on the handle for transferring a print of the particular portion of the hand of the authorized person to the memory means when the authorized person grips the handle to fire the gun, second means having first and second states of operation and operative in the first state for providing for a transfer by the first means of the print of the particular portion of the hand of the authorized person to the memory means and operative in the second state to prevent a transfer by the first means of the print of the particular portion of the hand of the authorized user to the memory means, the second means being disposed on the handle and including a cavity for receiving a key, the cavity and the key defining a switch which is closed upon the insertion of the key into the cavity and which provides, upon such switch closure, for the transfer of the print of the particular portion of the hand of the authorized person from the first means to the memory means.

14. A gun programmable to provide for its firing only by an authorized person, including a body portion, a handle extending from the body portion, a trigger extending from the body portion and actuatable from a first position to a second position to obtain a firing of the gun, a pin extending from the body portion and actuatable between first and second positions and operable in the first position to provide for the actuation of the trrigger between the first and second positions and operable in the second position to prevent the actuation of the trigger from the first position to the second position, memory means for storing a print of a particular portion of the hand of the authorized person, first means disposed on the handle for transferring a print of the particular portion of the hand of the authorized person to the memory means when the authorized person grips the handle to fire the gun, and second means for providing for a transfer by the first means of the print of the particular portion of the hand of the authorized person from the first means to the memory means, third means operative upon the transfer by the first means of the print of the particular portion of the hand of the authorized person by the second means into the memory means and upon a subsequent gripping of the handle by the hand of the authorized person for comparing the print resulting from such gripping and the print recorded in the memory means to actuate the pin to the first position upon a coincidence in such comparison, fourth means for preventing an actuation of the pin by the third means to the first position if there is no coincidence in the comparison by the third means of the prints recorded by the first means in the memory means and the prints produced by a gripping of the handle by a user other than the authorized user, fifth means for retaining the print of the attempted user of the gun when there is no coincidence between the print in the memory means and the print produced on the handle by the user other than the authorized user.

15. A gun programmable to provide for its firing only by an authorized person, including, a handle, a trigger, a body supporting the handle and the trigger, an actuatable pin disposed on the body and movable between first and second positions and operable in the first position to provide for the depression of the trigger to obtain the firing of a bullet from the body and operable in the second position to restrain the trigger from becoming depressed, memory means for storing the print of a particular portion of the hand of the authorized person, first means for comparing the print in the memory means and the print on the handle of the particular portion of the hand of a person gripping the gun and for actuating the pin from the second position to the first position when there is a coincidence in such comparison, and second means for storing the print of the particular portion of the person gripping the gun when there is no coincidence in the comparison provided by the user.

16. A gun as set forth in claim 15 wherein the second means includes means for storing the date and time of the attempted use of the gun by the person gripping the gun.

17. A gun as set forth in claim 15, including, third means for obtaining a return of the pin to the second position if there is no coincidence for a particular period of time between the print in the memory means and any print in the handle after the handle has been released by the authorized person.

Заняття № 4

Завдання для самостійної підготовки:

20. A gun as set forth in claim 19, including, seventh means for replacing the print in the memory means of the particular portion of the hand of the authorized user with a print of the particular portion of the hand of a person desiring to become authorized in using the gun.

21. A gun as set forth in claim 19, including, seventh means for indicating in the memory means whether the print of the particular portion of the hand of a person grasping the gun coincides with the print of the authorized person in the memory means.

22. A gun programmable to provide for its firing only by an authorized person, including, a handle, a trigger, a body supporting the handle and the trigger, an actuatable pin disposed on the body and movable between first and second positions and operable in the first position to provide for the depression of the trigger to obtain the firing of a bullet from the body and operable in the second position to restrain the trigger from becoming depressed, memory means for storing prints identifying a particular portion of the hand of the authorized person,

first means disposed on the handle for receiving the particular portion of the hand of the user and for producing a print of such particular portion, second means supported by the gun for comparing the prints from the memory means and the first means and for producing a signal representing a substantial coincidence in such comparison, third means for providing a comparison by the second means of the prints from the memory means and the first mean, after the handle has been released by the authorized person, to determine if such coincidence in the comparison is being maintained, fourth means for actuating the pin to the second position if no such coincidence occurs for a particular time period after the handle has been released by the authorized user, and fifth means responsive to the comparison from the third means for recording in the memory means the print of the particular portion of the hand of the person handling the gun if the comparison does not indicate the coincidence between the prints from the memory means and the first means.

23. A gun programmable to provide for its operation only by an authorized person, including, a handle, a trigger, a body supporting the handle and the triqger, an actuatable pin disposed on the body and movable between first and second positions and operable in the first position to provide for the depression of the trigger to obtain the firing of a bullet from the body and operable in the second position to restrain the trigger from becoming depressed, memory means for storing prints identifying a particular portion of the hand of the authorized person,

first means disposed on the handle for receiving the particular portion of the hand of the user and for producing a print of such particular portion, second means supported by the gun for comparing the prints from the memory means and the first means and for producing a signal representing a substantial coincidence in such comparison, third means for providing a comparison by the second means of the prints from the memory means and the first means, after the handle has been released by the authorized person, to determine if such coincidence in the comparison is being maintained, fourth means for actuating the pin to the second position if no such coincidence occurs for a particular time period after the handle has been released by the authorized user, and fifth means for recording in the memory means the time of any firing of the gun and the time of any handling of the gun by a non-authorized person.

24. A gun programmable to provide for its firing only by an authorized user, including, a handle, a trigger, a body supporting the handle and the trigger, memory means for storing the print of a particular portion of the hand of the authorized user, switching means actuatable by the hand of the user when the user grasps the gun, sensing means for sensing the print of the particular portion of the hand of the person using the gun, first means having first and second stable states for preventing the firing of the gun in the first stable state and for providing for the firing of the gun in the second stable state, and second means operative upon the actuation of the switching means by the hand of the user for comparing the print in the memory means and the print in the sensing means and for providing for the operation of the first means in the second stable state when the prints in the memory means and the sensing means coincide and for providing for the operation of the first means in the first stable state when the prints in the memory means and the sensing means do not coincide, the first means being operative in an individual one of the first and second stable states until an operation of the first means by the second means to the other one of the first and second stable states.

Заняття № 5



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