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Modal Verbs and their Equivalents

  1. A Canadian agency firm entered into contact with Soyuzexport to discuss the lines of their future business.
  2. A. Complete the sentences with the comparative forms of the adverbs in the box.
  3. A. Match professions with their definitions.
  4. A. Match the following words with their definitions.
  5. A. Open the brackets by putting the adjectives and adverbs into the correct form.
  6. Adjectives and Adverbs
  7. Answer these questions. Show that a planned action was not carried out using the modal verb to be to.
Modal Verb Equivalents Cases of Using
must 1) to have (to) W have to go to school every day. They had to stay at home. Pete will have to leave his town.
  2) ought (to) 3) should u ought to tell your parents the truth. u should b more careful. Yu ought to help them. Students should not m late to classes.
  4) to be (to) The expedition is to start in month. We are to meet at 5 o'clock. They parted and he was never to see her again. Nothing is to b done.
can to be able to He is able to translate the text in three hours.
may (might) to be allowed to We are allowed to travel by airplane.
  Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
Affirmative I (we, you, they) have to go. He (she, it) has to go I (we, you, they, he, she, it) had to go. I (we) shall have to go. You (they, he, she, it) will have to go.
I (we, you, they, he, she, it) should go. I (we, you, they, he, she, it) ought to go.    
I am to (am able to, am allowed to) wait for them at the airport. He (she, it) is to (is able to, is allowed to) wait for them at the airport. We (you, they) are to (are able to, are allowed to) wait for them at the airport.   I (he she, it) was to (was able to, was allowed to) wait for them at the airport. We (you, they) were to (were able to, were allowed to) wait for them at the airport.   I (we) shall be able to, shall be allowed to wait for them at the airport. You (they, he, she, it) will be able to, will be allowed to wait for them at the airport.  
Negative I (we, you, they) don't have to go. He (she, it) doesn't have to go. I (we, you, they, he, she, it) didn't have to go. I (we) shan't have to go. (they, you, she, it) won't have to go.  
I (we, you, they, he, she, it) should not (shouldn't) go. I (we, you, they, he, she, it) ought not (oughtn't) to go    
I am not to (am not able to, am not allowed to) wait for them at the airport. He (she, it) isn't to (isn't able to, isn't allowed to) wait for them at the airport. We (you, they) aren't to (aren't able to, aren't allowed to) wait for them at the airport I (he she, it) wasn't to (wasn't able to, wasn't allowed to) wait for them at the airport. We (you, they) weren't to (weren't able to, weren't allowed to) wait for them at the airport.   I (we) shall not be able to, shall not be allowed to wait for them at the airport. You (they, he, she, it) will not be able to, will not be allowed to wait for them at the airport.  
Interrogative Do I (we, you, they) have to go? Does he (she, it) have to go? Did I (we, you, they, she, it) have to go?   Shall I (we) have to go? Will You (they, he, she, it) have to go?  
Should I (we, you, they, he, she, it) go? Ought I (we, you, they, he, she, it) to go?    
Am I to (am I able to, am I allowed to) wait for them at the airport? Is he (she, it) to (is he (she, it) able to, is he (she, it) allowed to) wait for them at the airport? Are we (you, they) to (are we (you, they) able to, are we (you, they) allowed to) wait for them at the airport?   Was I (he she, it) to (was I (he she, it) able to, was I (he she, it) allowed to) wait for them at the airport? Were we (you, they) to (were we (you, they) able to, were we (you, they) allowed to) wait for them at the airport.   Shall I (we) be able to, shall I (we) be allowed to) wait for them at the airport? Will you (they, he, she, it) be able to, will you (they, he, she, it) be allowed to) wait for them at the airport?  

Grammar exercises:

1. Put the sentences in Past Simple and Future Simple Tenses. Use the model: He can't speak to you now. He couldn't speak to you yesterday. He won't be able to speak to you tomorrow.

1. You can't do it now. 2. You can't play tennis now. 3. They can't help you now. 4. Mary can't translate the text now. 5. Tom may ring me up now. 6. Children may play the computer now. 7. Students must translate the text now. 8. The first - year students must pass their English test now. 9. He must pay more attention to his studies now.

2. Fill in the blanks must or have to in correct form.

1. Nancy was feeling ill last night. She ... leave the party early. 2. You really ... work harder if you want to enter the institute. 3. Many children in Britain ... wear school uniform. 4. Ann's are not very good. She ... to wear glasses for reading. 5. I ... write to my parents. I haven't written to them for ages. 6. I can't mon Saturday. I ... meetm relatives at the airport. 7. has forgotten the keys that' s why he ... to wait. 8. She has forgotten her bag, that's why she .... to come back. 9. We had nothing to eat, that's why we .... to buy some products.

3. Fill in should or must/ have to. Remember, in some cases shouldso as must/ have to can be used.

1. person ... eat in order to live. 2. person ... eat balanced diet. 3. If u want to bm doctor, u ... go to medical school for years. 4. We ... go to Colorado for our vacation. 5. According to m academic advisor, I ... take another English course. 6. I ... write to m folks tonight, but I think I'll wait and do it tomorrow. 7. u ... have passport if u want to travel abroad. 8. Everyone ... have certain goals in life. 9. Rice ... have water in order to grow. 10. I ... go to class, but 1 don't feel good. I think I'd better stay home. 11. If door is locked, u ... use key to open it. 12. I don't have enough mn to take the bus, so I ... walk home. 13. If u don't know how to spell word, u ... look it u in the dictionary. 14. This pie is very good. You ... try piece. 15. This pie is excellent! u ... try piece.

4. Complete the sentence using can, could or (be) able to. Use can if possible; otherwise use (be) able to. Use the model: George has traveled a lot. He can speak four languages.

1. Sandra ........ drive but she hasn't got a car. 2. I can't see you on Friday but I ....... meet you on Saturday morning. 3. Although the fire spread quickly, everybody ........... to escape. 4. Ann had given us good directions and we ...... to find her house. 5. My grandfather was a very clever man. He .... speak five languages. 6. They didn't want to come with us at first but we ..... persuade them.

Unit III: "Art of presentation. Numbers in business".

PREACTIVITY:

1. Have you ever given a presentation? What type was it?

2. What are the main reasons for making a presentation?

3. In your experience, what makes a good/bad presentation?



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