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Незалежний причетний оборот

значення слова since

суфікси -age, -ate

префікс еп-

Text 7 A. Transport for Tomorrow Text 7В. Car of Future Text 1С. Talking Instrument Panels Text ID. Testing Times

предтекстовие ВПРАВИ

Вправа 1.Прочитайте, звертаючи увагу на вживання часів.

«Have you seen a copy of Magna Charta: collection of old English Laws?» «I have not seen all of it. I have seen parts of it many times. I saw three or four articles from it yesterday. I read them in the translated form. Old English is almost as difficult to read as a foreign language ». «Where did you see them?» «I saw them at the Public Library». «I saw you there. Did you see me? »« No, I did not see you. I did not see anyone whom I knew except the librarian. I did not see any of my school friends, I mean ». «I have seen you at the library many times, but you do not see anyone. The teacher says she has seen you there too, but you see only the books which you are reading ».

Вправа 2.Заповніть пропуски дієсловом to see у відповідному часу.

I ... a friend in the library yesterday. I ... him there many times before, but he was so busy that I did not speak to him. When I spoke to him he said that he ... never ... me at the library. He concentrates on his work. He ... only his book. The teacher ... him

there many times, but he does not ... even her. He ... many important facts in books, however, and tells the class about them. He ... and read more important documents than all the rest of our class put together.

Вправа 3.Переведіть такі словосполучення з Participle I і Participle II:

developing industry, developed industry;

changing distances, changed distances;

a controlling device, a controlled device;

an increasing speed, an increased speed;

a transmitting signal, a transmitted signal;

a reducing noise, a reduced noise;

a moving object, a moved object;

heating parts, heated parts.

Вправа 4.Знайдіть причастя, переведіть пропозиції.

A. 1. We need highly developed electronics and new materials
 to make supercomputers. 2. New alloys have appeared during the
 last decades, among them a magnesium-lithium alloy developed by
 our scientists. 3. We are carried by airplanes, trains and cars with
 built-in electronic devices. 4. Computer components produced
 should be very clean. 5. Many countries have cable TV, a system
 using wires for transmitting TV programs. 6. The fifth-generation
 computers performing 100 billion operations a second will become
 available in the near future. 7. A video phone has a device which al
 lows us to see a room and the face of the person speaking. 8. New
 technologies reduce the number of workers needed.

B. 1. Driving a car a man tries to keep steady speed and watch
 the car in front of him. 2. Having stated the laws of gravity, Newton
 was able to explain the structure of the Universe. 3. Being more effi
 cient than human beings, computers are used more and more exten
 sively. 4. Having graduated from Cambridge, Newton worked there
 as a tutor. 5. Having been published in 1687, Newton's laws of mo
 tion are still the basis for research. 6. Being invented the digital tech
 nology solved the old problems of noise in signal transmission.
 7. Having published his book about space exploration in 1895 Tsiol-
 kovsky became known all over the world. 8. Built in the middle of
 the last century, the British Museum is situated in central London.

Вправа 5.Визначте, яку функцію виконує слово з закінченням -ed, і переведіть пропозиції.

1. The first television set produced quite a sensation in 1939. The first television set produced in 1939 was a tiny nine-by-twelve inch box. 2. Newton's great work published in 1687 is called

«Principia». Newton published his great work «Principia» in 1687. 3. The Russian Chemical Society organized more than a century ago is named after Mendeleev. The Russian Chemical Society organized an international conference devoted to the latest achievements in organic chemistry. 4. The energy possessed by the body due to its position is called the potential energy. The new material possessed good properties. 5. The equipment required to carry out laboratory experiments was very complex. The equipment required further improvement. 6. The car model developed a speed of 50 miles an hour. The car model developed by our student design bureau will be shown on TV.

Вправа 6.Переведіть виділені словосполучення.

1. When completedin 1897 Jefferson's building was the largest and costliest library in the world. 2. Though beinga school teacher of mathematics all his life, Tsiolkovsky concentrated his attention on man's travel into space. 3. If comparedto today's TV program, the first black-and-white pictures were rather bad. 4. While beinga teacher of deaf people Bell became interested in sound and its transmission. 5. Though discovered,Newton's mistake had no influence on his theory. 6. While working ata new transmitter for deaf people Bell invented a telephone. 7. If heatedto 100 ° C, water turns into steam.

Вправа7. Знайдіть підлягає незалежного причетного обороту, переведіть пропозиції.

A. 1. The room being dark, we could not see anything. 2. The
 book being translated into many languages, everybody will be able
 to read it. 3. Peter having passed his exams, we decided to have a
 rest in the country. 4. We went for a walk, our dog running in front
 of us. 5. The testwork having been written, he gave it to the teacher
 and left the room. 6. They having arrived at the station early, all of
 us went to the cafe. 7. My friends decided to go to the park, the
 weather being warm and sunny. 8. Our library buying all the new
 books, we need not buy them ourselves. 9.The fuel burnt out, the en
 gine stopped. 10. Many scientists worked in the field of mechanics
 before Newton, the most outstanding being Galileo.

B. 1. Numerous experiments having been carried out at the or
 bital stations, it became possible to develop new methods of indus
 trial production of new materials. 2. President Jefferson having
 offered his personal library, the foundation of the Library of Con
 gress was laid. 3. Anthony Panizzi designed the Reading Room of
 the British Museum, the Reading Room being a perfect circle. 4. A
 beam of light being transmitted forwards, it is possible to measure

the distance between the car and the other cars in front of it. 5. The distance having been measured, the computer adjusts the car's speed. 6. Two metallurgists produced a new superplastic metal, the new steel showing properties identical to Damascus steel. 7. The young physicist having discovered Newton's error, other scientists confirmed it. 8. The first TV sets having been shown in New York, the news about it spread throughout the world.

З 1. With the first steam engine built in the 17-th century, people began to use them in factories. 2. The inventor was demonstrating his new device, with the workers watching its operation attentively. 3. With his numerous experiments being over, Newton was able to write his work very quickly. 4. With the current being switched on, the machine automatically starts operating.

Вправа 8.Переведіть пропозиції на англійську мову.

1. Читаючи книгу, він зазвичай робить замітки (make notes). 2. Прочитавши текст, ми обговоримо його. 3. Відповідаючи на питання, він зробив кілька помилок. 4. Відповівши на питання викладача, ми почали переводити новий текст. 5. Будучи хорошим провідником електрики, мідь широко використовується в промисловості. 6. Побачивши зелене світло, ми перейшли (cross) вулицю. 7. Купуючи газету, він втратив гроші. 8. Купивши газету, він пішов до метро.

Вправа 9.Переведіть пропозиції. Запам'ятайте значення виділених слів.

1. The Reading Room of the Library of Congress housesa great collection of reference books. 2. The Housesof Parliament are situated in the centre of London on the banks of the Thames. 3. The fuselage of a new cargo aircraft can houselarge-size equipment. 4. Solar power can be used as a source of heat.5. When we heatwater, it turns into steam. 6. Heatenergy may be of a kinetic form. 7. A new computerized system monitorsthe production processes of this plant. 8. This plant is equipped with video and television monitors.9. Our laboratory is developing an electronic monitoringsystem for cars. 10. In new cars instrument panels will have a means to displaydifferent objects on the road. 11. Liquid-crystal displaywas used in the first colour television set. 12. A special electronic device signalsthe engine to stop. 13. Now it is possible to send signalsover long distances.

Вправа 10.Визначте, в яких пропозиціях only - Наріччя, а в яких - прикметник.

1. The higher school today considers education not only as a collection of useful facts and theories but as a process which trains

the mind to think, analyze and make decisions. 2. Halley's Comet is the only comet which has been regularly observed for more than 200 years. 3. Many experts now question the idea that environmental problems began only with the industrial revolution in the 19th century. 4. Since their first appearance in +1939 only few people owned television sets. 5. The collection of ethnography in the British Museum is so vast that only a tiny percentage is on show to the general public. 6. When we speak about the further development of computers, we mean not only quantity, but also high technology and high speed.

Вправа 11. А.Знайдіть російські еквіваленти для словосполучень.

one thing is certain, public transport, the time is coming, from home to office, a modern vehicle, in common use, to get into a car, a pack of cigarettes, how far one can drive, various objects ahead, directly above the bumper, get out of a car.

різні об'єкти попереду, громадський транспорт, сучасне транспортний засіб, приходить час, сісти в машину, пачка сигарет, від будинку до роботи, одне явно, в повсюдному використанні, вийти з машини, скільки (як далеко) можна проїхати, безпосередньо над бампером.

В. Переведіть словосполучення.

to go out into the street, a usual means of transport, to get information, to get the best economy, a decade ago, to play a part, the size of a pack of cigarettes, the vehicle's carburetor, an electronic instrument panel, the car's position on a road, objects ahead of the vehicle, stationary objects ahead, ten miles an hour.


Вправа 12.Переведіть похідні слова за зразком:

прикметник іменник> + -age = іменник



short - короткий -> shortage - нестача, недолік mile - миля - » mileage - відстань в милях to use - використовувати - » usage - використання advantage, breakage, blockage;

суфікс дієслова -ate illuminate - висвітлювати; sophisticate - ускладнювати regulate, demonstrate, concentrate, separate, indicate;

префікс en- Л прикметник = дієслово rich - багатий -> to enrich - збагачувати to enable, to ensure, to enlarge, to enclose.

Вправа 13.Прочитайте і переведіть інтернаціональні слова.

public [ 'рлЬкк], transport, future [' fjir.tfe], pilot [ 'pallet], role [' reul], carburetor Lkaibju'rete], control [ken'treul], display, component [кет'реіпет], model [ 'modi], characteristics ^ kaerakte'ristiks], diagonally [dai'aegeneli], automatic [pitem'aetik], automatically, automobile [' o: t9m9ubi: l], motor [ 'meute], decade [' dekeid] , gasoline [ 'gaeseulhn], nature [' neitje.], to project [pre'dbekt], Sahara [se'hcr.re], ceramic [si'raemik], radar [ 'reide].

Вправа 14.Прочитайте і запам'ятайте вимова слів.

vehicle [ 'vi: ikl], drive [draw], driver, arrive [e'raiv], arrival [e'raivel], guidance [' gaidens], private [ 'praivit], motorway, motorcar, lane [lein], luxury [ '1лк / еп], exhaust [ig'zo.st], device [di'vais], adjust [a'c ^ ASt], fuel [fjuel], calculate [' kaelkjuleit], average [ 'aevends], since [sins], feature [ 'fi: tje], aerial [' serial], directly [di'rektli], danger [ 'deindje], observe [eb'zeiv], warn [wo: n], buzzer ['лге] , Japan [фе'рееп], Japanese [^ aepe'ni.z], angle [ 'aei \ gl], axis [' aeksis], data [ 'deite], impassable [im'pcr.sebl], valve [vaelv ], 5 ° C [faivdi'gri.z'sentigreid], engine [ 'endbin].

Слів і словосполучень ДЛЯ ЗАПАМ'ЯТОВУВАННЯ

adjustv - регулювати angleп - кут applyv - застосовувати avoidv - уникати axisп - вісь

currentа - сучасний, поточний

destinationп - пункт призначення detectv - виявляти

guidanceп - Управління, наведення

ignitionп - запалювання indicatev - вказувати, показувати

makev - робити, змушувати mountv - монтувати, встановлювати

onlyа - єдиний; adv - тільки

directlyadv - Прямо, непо placev - поміщати

средственно selectv - вибирати

enginen - двигун sizen - розмір

ensurev - забезпечувати, га- sophisticatedp.p - складний

ню, що гарантуєься valven - клапан

equipv - обладнати warnv - попереджати

exceedv - перевищувати withstandv - витримувати

exhaustn - вихлоп

in many respects- у багатьох відношеннях

to look like- бути схожим

to turn on / off- Вмикати / вимикати

Text 7 A

Прочитайте і переведіть текст. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:

Який вид автомобіля найбільш перспективний для громадського транспорту майбутнього?

Які приклади застосування електроніки в автомобілі наводяться в тексті?

Transport for Tomorrow

One thing is certain about the public transport of the future: it must be more efficient than it is today. The time is coming when it will be quicker to fly across the Atlantic to New York than to travel from home to office. The two main problems are: what vehicle shall we use and how can we plan our use of it?

There are already some modern vehicles which are not yet in common use, but which may become a usual means of transport in the future. One of these is the small electric car: we go out into the street, find an empty car, get into it, drive to our destination, get out and leave the car for the next person who comes along. In fact, there may be no need to drive these cars. With an automatic guidance system for cars being developed, it will be possible for us to select our destination just as today we select a telephone number, and our car will move automatically to the address we want.

For long journeys in private cars one can also use an automatic guidance system. Arriving at the motorway, a driver will select the lane1 he wishes to use, switch over to automatic driving, and then relax - dream, read the newspaper, have a meal, flirt with his passenger - while the car does the work for him. Unbelievable? It is already possible. Just as in many ships and aircraft today we are pi-

loted automatically for the greater part of the journey, so in the future we can also have this luxury in our own cars.

A decade ago, the only thing electronic on most automobiles was the radio. But at present sophisticated electronics is playing a big part in current automotive research. For example, in every gasoline-powered2 car that General Motors Corporation makes there is a small computer continuously monitoring the exhaust. The device, about the size of a pack of cigarettes, adjusts the vehicle carburetor fuel intake3 to get the best fuel economy. Ford cars are equipped with an electronic instrument panel that, among other things4, Will calculate how far one can drive on the fuel left in the tank. It will also estimate the time of arrival at destination and tell the driver what speed he has averaged5 since turning on the ignition.

According to specialists these features made possible by microelectronics are only the beginning. Radar may control the brakes to avoid collisions, and a display screen may show the car's position on the road. Recently a radar to be mounted on lorries and cars has been designed in the USA. The radar aerial looks like a third headlight placed directly above the bumper. Having summed up the information about the speed and distance of various objects ahead, the computer detects all possible dangers and their nature. A third component in the system is a monitor on the instrument panel. The radar only observes objects ahead of the vehicle. It is automatically turned on when the speed exceeds ten miles an hour. The green light on the panel indicates that the system is on. The yellow light warns of stationary objects ahead, or something moving slower than the car. The red light and buzzer warn that the speed should go down. Another red light and sound signal make the driver apply the brakes.

A Japanese company is designing a car of a new generation. When completed, the new model will have a lot of unusual characteristics. The car's four-wheel control system will ensure movement diagonally and even sideways, like a crab, at right angles to the longitudinal axis. This is especially important when leaving the car in parking places. To help the driver get information while concentrating on the road, the most important data will be projected on the wind screen. A tourist travelling in such a car will not lose his way even in Sahara with its impassable roads: a navigation Earth satellite will indicate the route.

A new ceramic engine has been developed in Japan. Many important parts as pistons, pressure rings6, Valves and some others

have been made of various ceramic materials, piston rings7 made of silicon materials being in many respects better than those of steel. They withstand temperatures up to 1,000 ° C. Therefore, the engine does not need a cooling system.

Notes to the Text

1. lane - ряд

2. gasoline-powered - з бензиновим двигуном

3. fuel intake - впорскування палива

4. among other things - крім усього іншого

5. what speed he has averaged - яка була його середня швидкість

6. pressure ring - кільце ущільнювача

7. piston ring - поршневі кільця


Вправа 15.Перегляньте текст 7А і дайте відповідь на питання.

1. What is the text about? 2. What kind of a car may be in common use in the near future? 3. How will a public electric car operate? 4. How will it operate on a motorway? 5. What electronic devices are there in a modern car? 6. What electronic devices does General Motors Corporation offer for a car? 7. What electronic devices are Ford cars equipped with? 8. Can a radar be used in a car? What will its functions be? 9. What functions will a Japanese car of a new generation have? 10. What materials do the Japanese offer to use for car motors?

Вправа 16.Вкажіть, які з наведених тверджень відповідають змісту тексту 7А.

1. An automatic guidance system was developed for the electric car. 2. Small electric cars are in common use. 3. Many ships and aircrafts are piloted automatically for the greater part of the journey. 4. Usually having arrived at a motorway, a driver switches over to automatic control and relaxes. 5. A decade ago there were many electronic things in the cars. 6. There is no future for microelectronics in automobiles. 7. Recently a radar to be mounted on lorries and cars has been designed in the USA. 8. A new ceramic engine has been developed in France.

Вправа 17.Знайдіть і тексті 7А причастя у функціях визначення і обставини (див. 3, 5 і 6-й абзаци), незалежні причетні обороти (див. 2-й і 7-й абзаци).

Вправа 18.Знайдіть причастя і переведіть пропозиції.

1. Studying Newton's work «Principia», a young physicist discovered a mistake in the calculations. 2. Having designed a car radar, the engineers started complex tests. 3. While driving a car one should be very attentive. 4. A new electronic instrument will calculate how far one can drive on the fuel left in the tank. 5. The engine tested showed that it needed no further improvement. 6. Scientists are experimenting with a system allowing drivers to see better after dark. 7. The system being tested will increase the safety and fuel efficiency of a car. 8. Having been tested, the computer system was installed at a plant. 9. Soon the night-vision system designed will be available. 10. The synthetic magnet has a lot of valuable qualities that can be changed, if desired. 11. Recently there have appeared battery-powered cars. 12. The radar used was of a completely new design. 13. Having been heated, the substance changed its properties. 14. Being provided with batteries an electric car can develop a speed of 50 miles an hour. 15. When mass produced, electric cars will help solve ecological problems of big cities. 16. A defect undetected caused an accident. 17. Though first developed for military purposes, radar can be used in modern cars.

Вправа 19.Знайдіть пропозиції з незалежним причетним оборотом, переведіть.

1. The first engines appeared in the 17th century and people began using them to operate factories, irrigate land, supply water to towns, etc. 2. The steam engine having been invented, a self-propelled vehicle was built. 3. The supply of steam in the car lasting only 15 minutes, the vehicle had to stop every 100 yards to make more steam. 4. After the German engineer N. Otto had invented the gasoline engine, the application of this engine in motor cars began in many countries. 5. The cars at that time were very small, the engine being placed under the seat. 6. Motorists had to carry a supply of fuel, because there were no service stations. 7. Brakes having become more efficient, cars achieved greater reliability. 8. Cars with internal combustion engines having appeared, the automobile industry began to develop rapidly. 9. By 1960 the number of cars in the world had reached 60 million, no other industry having ever developed so quickly.

Вправи для самостійної роботи Вправа 20.Визначте, до яких частин мови належать слова.

dangerous, automotive, longitudinal, automatically, present, nature, motorist, enrol, enrolment, guidance, average, current, ignition, diagonally, calculate, impossible, graduate, village, public, garage, useful, usefulness.

Вправа 21.Переведіть слова, звертаючи увагу на значення суфікса -ег / -ог.

driver, sensor, starter, monitor, microprocessor, detector, transistor, carburetor, user, transmitter, lecturer, generator.

Вправа 22.Назвіть похідні слова від дієслів, переведіть.

navigate, generate, stimulate, estimate, innovate, investigate, regulate.

Вправа 23.Напишіть вихідну форму, по якій потрібно шукати такі слова в словнику:

companies, easier, accordingly, better, creating, biggest, cried.

Вправа 24.Згрупуйте з слів пари:

а) синонімів

regulate, modern, want, select, use, current, wish, average, adjust, choose, mean, apply;

б) антонімів

unbelievable, cooling, continuous, passable, heating, believable, discontinuous, impassable.

Вправа 25.Переведіть пропозиції і запам'ятайте різні значення слова since.

1. Since 1770 there were many brilliant inventions in the automobile industry. 2. The production of motor cars in Great Britain was stopped since there were severe speed limits. 3. In early days many of the cars broke since transmissions were still unreliable and often went out of operation. 4. Since conventional headlights are not very effective, a new system has to be developed. 5. Since the French engineer Gugnot invented the first self-propelled vehicle in 1770 the automobile industry developed very rapidly. 6. The number of chemical elements known to science has grown considerably since Mendeleev created his Periodic Table in тисячі вісімсот сімдесят одна.

Вправа 26.Переведіть пропозиції і запам'ятайте значення слова too (Занадто) перед прикметником.

1. The task is too difficult for them. 2. The size of the device is too big now. 3. The difference in temperatures was too great. 4. The old system is too complicated. 5. A sensor mechanism for a car is too large at present.

Вправа 27.Переведіть пропозиції і запам'ятайте значення слів future и further.

1. In the future it will be possible to use more channels on every TV set via satellite and cable TV. 2. Scientists throughout the world were quick to realize the importance of the radio and contributed much to its further development. 3. The subjects that the students study in the first and the second years are very important for their future speciality. 4. The use of computers in cars is a further step in improving safety on the road. 5. I'll give you further instructions tomorrow.

Вправа 28.Заповніть пропуски словами only або the only, переведіть пропозиції.

1. The Earth is ... planet having liquid water. 2. It is useful to remember that the industrial revolution began ... at the end of the

18th century. 3 ...... way to achieve good results is to apply one's

knowledge to practical work. 4. The revolution in science and technology affects not ... economically developed countries, but also developing countries. 5. Multi-cylinder engines came into use ... after World War II. 6. The motor car has not ... brought mobility to millions of people, but also has polluted the atmosphere. 7. Weightlessness can be created on Earth, but ... for a few seconds. 8 .... requirement for plastic steel is that it must be rich in carbon. 9. The Library of Congress serves not ... to Members of the Congress, but also to libraries throughout the US and the world.

Вправа 29.Заповніть пропуски відповідними формами дієслова to have (has, have, had, has not, have not, had not).

«I ... a good car for sale. It ... many extra parts. It ... a good speedometer and four new tires. It ... a new spare (запасна) tire too. »« ... It its original paint (фарба)? »« No, it ... its original paint. It ... new paint on it. It looks new. »« I .... a good offer for it yesterday, but the man ... very little cash. I want cash (готівка). »« ... It a good engine? »« Yes, it ... an excellent engine. It ... any weak places in it. Engines that ... weak places in them are al-

ways in the garage. »« I ... an idea you will sell your car. »« I ... two good offers yesterday. One man ... all cash. But he does not look like an honest man. I ... no desire to do business with him. »

Вправа 30.Замініть підрядні речення причетним оборотом.

1. While Boris was driving home, he saw an accident. 2. After we had talked with Peter, we felt much better. 3. When John arrived at the station, he saw the train leave. 4. After he had left the house, he walked to the nearest metro station. 5. When I looked out of the window, I saw Mary coming. 6. As we finished our part of the work, we were free to go home. 7. As Ann had had no time to write us a letter, she sent a telegram.

Вправа 31.Дайте відсутні форми дієслів, запам'ятайте їх. driven, learning, said, setting, buy, ridden, break.

Вправа 32.Прочитайте і переведіть без словника.

A new vacuum-controlled constant velocity carburetor developed by an American company offers several advantages over ordinary carburetors, including 25 per cent gasoline economy, improved engine performance and easier starting. The device having only 54 parts compared with some 300 in conventional carburetors has no choke (дросель). It constantly adjusts the mixture of fuel and air, which can not be done in usual carburetors. Provided with special mechanism the carburetor helps the engine turn on at once in cold weather. Though developed quite recently, it is already being used by cars and other kinds of public transport. With diesel engine becoming almost standard equipment, the vacuum carburetor will never be used on new cars. It may be said that present-day carburetors are dinosaurs and in 20 years there will not be any more. But there are some countries which are interested in importing the device as a replacement for existing carburetors.


Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. What are the main problems of public transport? (A new type of vehicle and its much more efficient use) 2. What type of modern vehicle may become a usual means of transport in the future? (A small electric car) 3. What is the possible development in private cars? (The use of an automatic guidance system) 4. What electronic

devices are used in modern cars? (A computer, fuel adjusting devices, an electronic instrument panel for indicating the speed, time, distance covered and fuel left) 5. What is the main function of a radar for a car? (Detecting all possible dangers ahead of the vehicle on a road) 6. What unusual feature will a new generation car have? (Four-wheel control system ensuring diagonal and side movements) 7. What materials are used in current automotive design? (Ceramics)

Exercise 2.Make a sentence out of the two parts.

1. There are already some modern vehicles

2. For example, a small electric car can solve

3. A passenger

4. With an automatic guidance system for cars,

5. It will be possible

6. All these innovations will become possible because of

7. Computers, electronic instrument panels, radars, adjusting devices, etc. are playing

1. goes out into the street, finds an empty car, gets into it, drives to his destination, gets out and leaves the car for the next passenger.

2. there may be no need to drive these cars.

3. which may become a usual means of transport in the future.

4. increasingly wide use of modern microelectronics in cars.

5. many problems of public transport.

6. an important part in current car design.

7. to switch over to automatic
 driving, as we do in ships and air-
 crafts today.

Exercise 3.Read and learn.

Bob's New Used Car

John: This is the car that Bob bought from Mr. Adams.

Bill: I did not even know that he had bought a car. When did he tell

you that he had bought it? J: He told me yesterday that he had bought it two days earlier. B: Do you know how much he paid for the car? J: Well, he said he had paid 800 dollars for it. В .: I wonder why he bought an old car? I did not think he needed a

car. J .: Well, I suppose he will use it for his new job.

В .: Do you think the car is in good condition?

J .: He told me that the car was in perfect condition. The tires are

practically new. The new generator works perfectly. Frankly

(Відверто кажучи), I think that it was a good bargain

(Вигідна покупка, хороша угода). В .: I believe you are right. J .: I have not mentioned that the car had been driven only 25,000

miles. Also, the covers (чохли) which are on the front seats are

new. They are made of material that can be washed. В .: Now I want to see how well the car really runs. J .: O.K. Let's ask Bob when he is going for a ride. Then we can see

whether or not the car runs well. В .: Do you know if Bob is going to come back here soon? J .: Yes, I'm sure he'll be back right away (відразу, негайно). В .: By the way (між іншим), can you tell me where Bob is

keeping his car? J .: He is using the garage of the people living next door.

Exercise 4.Speak about:

1. Public transport of the future.

2. The application of electronics in modern cars.

3. The latest innovations in car design.

Use exercises 1,2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: one thing is certain, to be much more efficient, to be in common use, to select a destination, to monitor, the size of a pack of cigarettes, to look like, to warn of objects ahead of the vehicle, to design, to get information, while driving, to make of.

Exercise 5.Comment on the following statement.

It is natural that everybody should want to have a car.

One point of view : It is convenient, saving time, avoiding crowded buses and other city transport, independent, comfortable, useful at weekends, contact with nature, developing the sense of responsibility, improving the level of technological culture.

A contrary point of view : Expensive, traffic jams (пробки в вуличному русі), difficulties with repairs and maintenance, pollution, lack of physical exercise, takes more time than it saves, road accidents, waste of energy resources, the unbearable situation in many cities, especially in supercities .

Exercise 6.Read and smile.

On the Bus

It was during the rush-hour (години пік). As usual, all the seats in the bus were occupied. When a good-looking young lady got in,

an elderly man sitting near the door wanted to rise, but the lady at once pressed him to keep his seat. «Thank you», she said, «I do not mind standing.» «But, madam, permit me ...». «I insist upon your sitting down," she stopped him, and putting her hands on his shoulders she almost forced him back into his seat.

The man tried again to stand up and said, «Madam, will you allow me to ...» But once more the lady said, «I do not wish to take your seat, sir!» And forced him back with another push .

With a great effort the man finally pushed her aside. «Madam», he called out, «I do not care whether you take my seat or not. The bus has already taken me two stops beyond my destination, and now I wish to get out. »

A good-looking lady-motorist was speeding through the sleepy village when a policeman stepped out on the road in front of her and forced her to stop. «What have I done?» She asked. «You were travelling forty miles an hour», replied the policeman. «Forty miles an hour!» Cried the lady-motorist in surprise, «I left my house only 20 minutes ago».

Text 7B

Прочитайте текст і заповніть наступну таблицю:

 Саг design innovations since 1770  The latest car electronic systems  Their advantages  Their disadvantages

Використовуючи таблицю, розкажіть по-англійськи про найбільш важливих удосконалень в конструкції автомобіля з моменту його винаходу. Про які останні досягнення в області конструювання автомобілів ви знаєте? Вибачте за тимчасові незручності в тексті найцікавіша з вашої точки зору і чому?

Саг of Future

Ever since Nicolas Cugnot, a Frenchman, invented the first self-propelled road vehicle in 1770 there has been no shortage of companies willing to make a better automobile. Over years their efforts have given users the gasoline engine (дизель), the electric starter, tubeless tires (беськамерная шина), fuel-injected engines and anti-lock brakes (гальмо з антиблокувальною пристрою

ством), these are only a few innovations. What is next? Here are some examples of what the car designers are working at in the world today.

Engineers are experimenting with a state-of-art (новітній) system that enables drivers to see better after dark. This «night vision» system uses infrared sensors that can detect a human figure at night more than 1,600 feet away. That's five times the distance at which conventional headlights are effective. The sensors pick up infrared rays emitted by any object that gives off heat. An image-processing system scans the information from the sensors, creating different images for different objects. The images are then displayed on a cathode-ray screen built in a car's instrument panel. It is like black-and-white photograph of an object ahead. And the system is passive, which means no lights are needed to illuminate the object in front of the vehicle. But the biggest problem will be reducing costs and the other one is the size of the sensor mechanism which is too big now.

One of the latest applications of sophisticated electronics is the wheel-computerized system that not only monitors air pressure in automobile tires but adjusts it automatically. In addition this system enables a driver to set tire pressure while seated. The system developed consists of three separate modules. The first is the instrument panel display which houses the system's main microprocessor, programming buttons (кнопка включення програми) and warning signals. The second component is the detector drive module (модуль приводу) which is essentially four microchips attached, in one unit, to the chassis. Each chip detecting pressure changes that may occur, the transistors within the module signal the third component - a programmable transducer (програмований перетворювач). The transducer attached to each wheel changes the tire pressure accordingly.

However, some automobile experts think this system is too complicated and costly. The design has to be simple and of low cost.

Text 7C

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