часи групи Perfect Active, Passive Підмет присудок суфікси -er / 'ОДУ -ant / -ent префікси un- / im-
Text ЗА. Electricity
Text 3B. A Great Citizen of the World
Text 3C. Solar Light by Night
Text 3D. Non-traditional Renewable Sources of Energy
Вправа 1.Поясніть вживання часів групи Perfect, переведіть.
1. This is a very good book, I have just read it with pleasure. 2. He has been absent this week. He has been ill. 3.1 have not seen you for a long time. Where have you been all this time? 4. We have not heard about her since 1989. 5. By the beginning of the lecture the laboratory assistant had brought all the necessary diagrams. 6. Before we came to the next lecture we had studied the material of the first one. 7. Have you already finished your diploma work? No, I shall have finished it by the end of June. 8. They will not have passed their exams by the time you return. 9. Many students have been enroled into universities this year. 10. The translation has not been finished yet. It will have been finished by the end of the month. 11. Have you brought these journals with you? No, these journals had been brought by my sister before I returned from St.Petersburg. Do not you know that?
Вправа 2. А.Виберіть правильну форму присудка.
1. Не (has graduated, graduated) from MSTU named after Bauman this year. He (graduated, will have graduated) from MSTU
named after Bauman in 6 years. 2. She (saw, has seen) us in the morning yesterday. She (saw, has seen) us this morning. 3.1 (have met, met) him last year. I never (had met, have met) him before.
4. Our group (will do, will have done) a lab work tomorrow. 5. This
В. Переробіть пропозиції з дійсного в пасивний стан.
1. The students have done their homework very well. 2. Bob has left his notebook at home. 3.1 have told you about a lecture. 4. The laboratory assistant had prepared the experiment by 2 o'clock.
5. She had finished her test when we came. 6. The teacher will have
Вправа3. Переведіть пропозиції.
1. Що ви зробили сьогодні? - Я надрукувала (to type) багато листів. - Я хочу подивитися лист до містера Д. - Ось, будь ласка. Я тільки що надрукувала його. - А лист до містера Р.? - Я ще не надрукувала цей лист. Я надрукую його до кінця робочого дня. 2. Вчора ми зустріли наших друзів. Ми не бачили їх з закінчення університету. До повернення в Москву вони працювали в Орлі. 3. Новий завод буде побудований до початку наступного року. Він буде оснащений найсучаснішим обладнанням.
Вправа 4.Прочитайте і поясніть вживання часів.
At the Institute
Vera: Hello, Mike! What are you doing here?
Mike: Hello, Vera! I am reading for my mathematics exam.
V .: But your group has passed it already, has not it?
M .: Yes, it has, but I was absent at this time. So I'll take this exam tomorrow.
V .: Is it difficult for you to take this exam?
M .: No, it is not. I have finished a specialized mathematical school where mathematics was studied more thoroughly (ретельно) than at other schools. Besides, I have taken part in a mathematics contest of our city.
V .: Really? Have you? When was it?
M .: It was last year.
V .: Were you the first at this contest?
M .: No, I was the second. The first one was the boy from one of the
Novosibirsk mathematical schools. V .: Have you ever been to Novosibirsk? M .: Yes, I have been there this year with a group of students of our
faculty. V .: What have you seen there? M .: Oh, I have seen a lot. But now I have no time to tell you about
it. Well, Vera, what are you doing here? Are you reading for
your exams too? V .: No, I am not. I've passed all my exams with good marks this
term and so my holidays have already started. I'm waiting for
my friend here. Good luck, Mike.
Вправа 5.Визначте, ніж виражено підлягає кожного пропозиції, переведіть.
1. After the international conference on ecology it has become possible to begin working at environmental problems on a global scale. 2. Some scientists and engineers are working at improving traditional production processes, others are developing new technologies. 3. The new instruments will enable us to determine the level of pollution in our rivers. 4. Our technological advances make it possible to deal with the most difficult problems. 5. Our lecturer's book on strength of materials is well-known and popular. 6. One must study six years to become an engineer. 7. There is a big library in the new building of our institute. It is a very good library. One may get all the necessary books there and it is possible to keep them till the end of the academic year. 8. It is well-known that technological progress is impossible without electronics, computers, robots and new materials. 9. That ecological problems have become the most important ones at present is evident to all. 10. What is necessary for the students is to get a good qualification. 11.That S.P. Korolyev was the founder of practical cosmonautics is a well-known fact. 12. That theory is combined with practical training is a very good tradition of our educational system. 13. That it is necessary to develop an international ecological program is realized throughout the world.
Вправа б.Знайдіть присудок в кожному реченні, переведіть.
1. The electronic industry produces several types of minicomputers. 2. The air in many cities has been polluted by traffic and industry. 3. The lecture on environment protection was very interesting. 4. Mankind has never experienced changes in life and work
on such a scale. 5. The task of the world community is to improve the ecological situation in the world. 6. In six years we shall become engineers. 7. It is possible to take measures to protect environment on a global level by the joint efforts of all countries. 8. Professor N. is the dean of our faculty. 9. The important feature of our education is that it combines theory with practical training. 10. The main tendency of our life is that computers are being used in all spheres of technology, science and everyday life. 11. The essential feature in environment protection is that most of it is done by public initiative. 12. What is necessary today is that the protection of global natural resources must be planned. 13. Today one of the most important problems is that big cities are polluted.
Of the 12th century. The University consists of (складається з) 24 different colleges including 4 colleges for women. Each college is self-governing (самоврядних). | Good-bye for the present, your friend Mike | предтекстовие ВПРАВИ | This student (study) physics (at present, every day, last semester, when the telephone rang, tomorrow at this time, next semester). | One can take this journal from the library. | Renewable - відновлюваний, який відновлюється | Environment Protection Must Be Global | As a whole - в цілому | Вправи для самостійної роботи | R .: Oh, my father told us about new heating systems made by this company. They use clean and safe technology. |