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Translate from Russian into English.

  1. A Brief History of the Russian Customs Service
  2. A) translate the illustrative examples into Russian;
  3. A. 1. Read and translate the following international words
  4. A. 1. Translate the following international words
  5. A. 5. Translate the sentences
  6. A. Do pre-reading tasks before each abstract, then read and translate the abstracts about the basics of management.
  7. A. Read and translate the text.

1) ³ . .

2) , .

3) . .

4) ? ? ?

5) ?

6) ?

7) , .

8) ; .

9) , .

10) ; .

11) , !

12) .

13) , .

14) ' . -.

15) . .

16) . .

17) . .

18) , , .

19) ?

20) ?

Unit 9 Should and ought to

1 Should and ought toin comparison

Shouldand ought toare very much alike in meaning and are often interchangeable.

Ought tohas more stress on the meaning of moral obligation, whereas should is common in instructionsand corrections.

1.Should / ought toare used to talk about

obligation, duty and similar ideas: You should notsay things like that. You ought toknow it.

advice: You ought toread this book. You shouldread this book. It is very interesting.

NOTE: Shouldmay acquire additional shades of meaning, such as desirability: It's late. You shouldgo to bed.

in formal noticesand on informationsheets: Students shouldbe prepared to answer questions on this point.

NOTE: Ought tois not used in this case.

assumption about present orpast actions. The plane should be landingnow (I expect it is landing).

The letter should have arrivedby now (I expect it has arrived).

NOTE:It is not used for assumption which displeases the speaker: Let's not go shopping now!

2.Should / ought to + Continuous Infinitiveexpress the idea that the subject is not fulfilling his obligationsor that he is acting rashly or foolishly: He ought tobe studying for the exams. He should notbe playing baseball for hours.

3. Should / ought to + Perfect Infinitivein:

a) an affirmative sentence indicates an unfulfilledor neglectedaction in the past: He looks very ill. He should have stayedat home.

b) a negative sentence means that an undesirable action was carried out: They should not have concealedit from us.

2 Must, should,and ought to in comparison

Notice some peculiarities in the shades of meanings of must, should, ought to:

1. Should / ought toexpress obligation or advisability. Mustin this meaning sounds too forcefuland peremptory: You shoulddo it at once. You ought todo it at once. You mustdo it at once.

2. Should / ought to+ Perfect Infinitiveshow that the action has not been fulfilledthough it was desirable: You should have helpedhim. (But you did not do that)

3. Must+ Perfect Infinitivedenotes conclusions about the past: He must have comeby taxi. (I suppose)

3 Emotionalshould: In subordinate clauses,

emphatic constructions

1. Should is found in:

that-clausesafter adjectives and nouns expressing the importance (Important, necessary, vital, essential, eager, anxious, concerned, wish): It is important that she shouldtalk to me when she gets here. Is it necessarythat my uncle shouldbe informed? It is his wishthat the money shouldbe given to charity

object clauses:

a) following the principal clause with "it"As a formal subject after such expressions as (It is wonderful, absurd, monstrous, natural, old, queer, strange, terrible, etc): It is absurdthat such things shouldhappen to me. It was strangethat he shouldbe asking those questions

b) beginning with why: I do not know why we should notmake friends.

rhetorical questionsbeginning with why:Whyshould I do that? It's rendered in Russian as: ...? Why should notyou have dinner with us?

attributive clausesbeginning with whyafter the noun 'reason ': I do not see any reason why we should notbe happy.

subordinate clausesafter words expressing personal judgementsand reactions: It's astonishingthat she shouldsay that sort of things to you. I'm sorryyou shouldthink I did it on purpose

if-clauses, after in case, for bear thatand lest, so that, in order that: Ifyou shouldsee Luke, tell him about it. She turned the radio down so that she should notwake the children up.

NOTE:It is impossible to use ought tofor emotional colouring.

2.Learn some set phrases with should:

How shouldI know?

I'm sorry that you shouldthink so badly of me.

That it shouldcome to this! ( !)

To think that it shouldcome to this! (ҳ , !)

To think that it should have happenedto me! (ҳ , !)



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And offers | Read the situations and write what you would say. | Paraphrase the following sentences using the modal verb can in the meaning of astonishment, uncertainty or doubt. | Translate into English. | Use the modal verb may followed by the appropriate infinitive. | Translate from Russian into English. | Comment on the meaning and the form of the modal verbs must and may. Translate the sentences into Russian. | Change the following sentences, making them opposite in meaning. | Translate from Russian into English. | Translate from Russian into English. |

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