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Exercise 2. Put up four questions of different types (general, special, disjunctive, alternative) to each sentence.

  1. A. Look at the picture and answer the questions below.
  2. Add exercise into your daily life
  3. Answer the following questions
  4. Answer the following questions on the text
  5. Answer the following questions.
  6. Answer the questions
  7. Answer the questions

Model: The partners are getting along quite well

1. Are the partners getting along quite well?

2. Why are the partners getting along quite well?

3. The partners are getting along well, are not they?
 4. Are the partners getting along well or badly?

1. Jane is doing the books in our firm.

2. We are putting the same amount of money into business.

3. My brother is investing his money in the private cafe.

4. They are distributing the losses unequally.

5. We are combining resources very well.




A business corporation is an institution established for the purpose of making profit. It is operated by individuals. Their shares of ownership are represented by stock certificates. A person who owns a stock certificate is called a stock-holder.

There are several advantages of the corporate form of ownership. The first is the ability to attract financial resources. The next advantage is the corporation attracts a large amount of capital it can invest it in plants, equipment and research. And the third advantage is that a corporation can ofter higher salaries and thus attract talented managers and specialists.

The privately owned business corporation is one type of corporation. There are some other types too. Educational, religious, charitable institutions can also incorporate. Usually such corporation does not issue stock and is nonprofit. If there is a profit it is reinvested in the institution rather than distributed to private stockholders.

In some western countries, cities, states, federal government and special agencies can establish governmental corporations. A few examples of these governmental corporations are state universities, state hospitals and city owned utilities. Governmental corporations are non-profit as a rule and usually they do not issue stock certificates.

Active Vocabulary

corporation корпорація

to establish засновувати

stock sertificate акція

stockholder (shareholder) акціонер

 7. I want to buy some ... in IBM and General Motors.8. An educational ... usually reinvests a11 its money.

to attract financial resources залучати фінансові ресурси
 to offer high salaries пропонувати високі зарплати
 to attract a large amount of capital залучати великий капітал
 educational, religious, освітні, релігійні,

charitable institutions благодійні установи

to issue stock випускати акції

nonprofit неприбутковий

to reinvest вкладати ще раз

Comprehension Questions

1. Who can own a corporation?

2. Is a corporation necessarily larger than a sole, proprietorship?

3. What are the advantages of the corporate form of ownership?

4. What can you say about the disadvantages of the corporate form of ownership?

5. Do the corporations issue stock to stockholder?

6. What kind of corporations usually do not issue the stock?

7. What world-known corporations do you know?

8. What types of business usually take the corporate form of ownership?

Vocabulary Practice

Exercise 1. Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence.

1. What kind of ... is better: buying stock I 1 charitable

or buying real estate? I

2. To attract greater financial ... the I

company issues the stock. I 2 stock

3. A university can be ... corporation. I 3 resources

4. The partners did not put the same ... I

into business. I 4 institution

5. The group of people from different I

countries are going to ... a corporation. I 5 investment

6. The Red Cross is an international ... I
 organization. I 6 nonprofit

I 7 amount

I of capital


I 8 to establish


Secretary Good afternoon.

Steve Good afternoon. I'd like to see Mr. Jackson. We

have an arrangement with him. My name is

Mr. Watson.

Secretary Just a minute, please. I'll let him know you are


Steve Thanks.'

Secretary Mr Jackson is waiting for you. Do you know where

his office is?

Steve Oh sure, thank you.

Jackson Hello, Steve, it's so nice to see you. Sit down,


Steve Thanks, Nick. How are you getting on?

Jackson Quite all right, thanks. And what about you?

Steve Everything is all right too. In fact I want to talk to

you about my business.

Jackson Oh, I'll be glad to do something for you.

Steve Well, Nick. I need some legal advice. John and I are

thinking of incorporating.

Jackson You are going to expand, are not you? It seems that

your partnership has been doing very well.

Steve Oh, yes. We have a success. Now some businessmen

are interested in investing with us. So could you

explain me what sort of legal procedure I have

to follow to form a corporation?

Jackson At first you have to apply for a corporate charter.

Steve Well?

Jackson Let me get this straight. You want to issue and sell

stock in exchange for investment capital, do not you?

Steve Exactly.

Jackson After you obtain the charter the stockholders, as

owners, hold a meeting to organize the corporation.

Steve Does that mean we elect our Board of Directors,

adopt bylaws and choose the company 's officers?

Jackson That's what I mean. Though the officers of the company supervise daily management, the stockholders always have final authority. They vote at annual meetings.

Steve Yes, I see it. By the way, does a corporation have limited liability?

Jackson It does. It also has the right to own property, to buy and sell and right to sue and be sued.

Steve I see. The corporation acts like a person. It has the right of an individual.

Jackson You are right

Steve O.K. Why do not we get together for a game of golf one day next week?

Active Vocabulary

bylaws юридичні положення

для підприємств

I need some legal advice мені потрібен юридичний рада

to incorporate з'єднуватися, об'єднуватися

to invest вкладати гроші

to expand розширюватися (про виробництво)

to follow a legal procedure слідувати юридичною процедурою

to apply for a corporate charter подавати заяву на корпоративний патент

to issue and sell stock in випускати і продавати акції

exchange for investment натомість на вкладений

capital капітал

stockholder, shareholder акціонер, власник акцій

to hold a meeting проводити збори

to elect a board of directors проводити збори директорів

to choose the company's вибирати адміністративних

officers виконавців компанії

to have a final authority мати вирішальне слово

to supervise daily здійснювати щоденне

management керівництво

to vote голосувати

annual meeting щорічні збори

to have limited liability мати необмежену юридичну відповідальність

to own property володіти власністю

to sue порушувати судову справу

to be sued піддаватися судовому розгляду

Vocabulary Exercises
 Exercise 1. Transform the sentences according to the model.

M про d e l: We are the company officers.
 We supervise daily management.
We, as the company officers, supervise daily management.

1. My friends are the stockholders of IBM corporation. They

hold annual meetings.

2. These businessmen are the organizers of this corporation.

They issue and sell stock in exchange for investment capital.

3. A corporation is the owner of the property. It has limited liability.

4. Dick is a manager. He wants to form a corporation.

5. A corporate charter is a certificate of incorporation. A charter is granted by a state officer.

6. The stockholders are the owner of the corporation. They have final authority in management of the company.

7. The owners of the corporation are the stockholders. The owners of the corporation must vote.

Exercise 2. Transform the sentences according to the model

M про d e l: We organized our corporation а уear ago (to invest much money).

We have been investing much money since we organized our company.

1. They became company officers (to supervise daily management).

2. My friend bought the stock of the company five years ago (to make money).

3. They received the corporate charter a month ago (to plan a meeting).

4. We advertised the application last week (wait for reply).

5. He became a member of the Board of Directors (work hard).

6. We elected a new Board of Directors last month (plan change).

Exercise3. Answer the questions.

1. In what corporation would you invest money?

2. What legal procedure do you have to follow if you want to form a corporation?

3. Who has final authority and supervises the daily
 management of a corporation?

4. How often do the stockholders choose the company officers?

5. The stockholders have unlimited liability, do not they?

6. In what way can a corporation act?

7. What do you think about the possibilities of forming corporations in this country?

8. In what spheres of industry is a corporate form of proprietorship the most beneficial in this country?

Exercise 4. Translate into English.

1. Корпорація може випускати і продавати акції.

2. Корпорація може пропонувати більш високу заробітну плату.

3. Корпорація має більше можливостей для залучення фінансових ресурсів, ніж партнерство.

4. Щороку акціонери проводять збори.

5. Освітні, благодійні, релігійні

установи можуть бути корпораціями. Подібні установи, як правило, не приносять прибуток.

6. Ця корпорація прибуткова, вона буде розширюватися.

7. Спочатку ви повинні подати заяву на корпоративний патент.

8. Акціонери мають вирішальне слово в управлінні корпорацією.

9. Адміністративні виконавці компанії здійснюють постійне керівництво.

10. Власники акцій проводять щорічні збори і обирають раду директорів.

11. Корпорація має право порушувати кримінальну справу.

Exercise 5. Make up the dialogue.

1. Ask a lawyer how to form a corporation.

2. Discuss with your friend advantages and disadvantages of a corporate form of proprietorship.

3. Advertise a corporate form of proprietorship.

Grammar Exercises
 Exercise 1. Make the sentences negative.

M o d e 1: They have held a meeting.

They have not held a meeting.

  1. The stockholders have elected the Board of Directors.
  2. This corporation has issued the stock.
  3. The Board of Directors has chosen the company officers.
  4. This company has greatly expanded.
  5. We have already applied for a corporate charter.

Exercise 2. Put up 4 questions of 4 types (general, special, disjunctive, alternative) to each sentence.

M про d e 1: The stockholders have held the annual meeting.

1. Have the stockholders held the annual meeting?

2. What have the stockholders done?

3. The stockholders have held the annual meeting, have not they?

4. Have the stockholders held a meeting or a conference?

1. The partners have applied for a corporate charter.

2. The stockholders have voted at the annual meeting.

3. The company has issued the additional stock.

4. They have invested all their money in this company.

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Vocabulary Practice | Exercise 1. Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence. | Vocabulary Exercises | Grammar Exercises | Exercise 2. - Change the modal verb according lo the model | Present Indefinite, Present Continuous or Present Perfect). | LINE AND STAFF POSITIONS | LESSON 6 | Dialogue | Exercise 4. Translate from Russian into English. |

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