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anniversary, d Come on Sammy, it's ten

o'clock, time bed. e I read in a magazine yesterday

that some diets are bad you. f It's really hot today: do you

want to go a swim? g Excuse me, we ordered nearly

an hour ago and we're still

waiting our food, h I opened this letter by mistake,

it's you.

i Good morning! What woufd

you like breakfast? j Sitting in the sun for a long

time isn't good your skin, к I asked my boss a day off, but

he said there's too much to do

at the office. 1 Hurry up! I don't want to be

late the meeting.


Improve your writing A mini-biography

a Read the text about jazz musician, Kenny G. Where should the phrases below go in the text?


b Write some sentences about a famous musician, actor or entertainer from your country. Use these phrases to help you.


A As well as making records

В He was born in 1956 as Kenny Gorelick in Seatde, USA

С During the last twenty years, Kenny has played with

D Kenny become well-known on the international music scene

E When he was just fifteen years old

F SajiuphoniU Kenny G


... is ... (country's} most successful ...

He was born in ... (p/ace] in ... (year)

After... he started his career as a ...

He became well-known during ... When he was ... years old, he ... During the last... years he has ... and ...


KennyG


m

The World's Favourite Jazz Musician...

(1) 5ttwphonist Кении G . is now the
world's most successful jazz musician.

(2)___________ , and he learned to

., he toured

play the saxophone at an early age. (3). Europe with his high school band. After studying at Washington University he started his career as a musician. In 1Э&2 he signed for Arista records and made his first solo album Kenny G.

Success came slowly at first, but during the 1990s

(4)___________ . He released Breathless, his most successful album

so far in 1993, and in 1994 won the Best Artist award at the 21st ■ American Music Awards held in Los Angeles.


I



(5)


., he also found time to play in front of another


famous saxophone player - US President Bill Clinton - at the 'Gala For The President' concert in Washington, and to break the world record for playing a single note (45 minutes and 47 seconds!) at the J & К Music World Store in New York in 1997.


(6)


superstars like Aretha Franklin, Michael Bolton and


Whitney Houston and he has sold more than 36 million albums worldwide ... and he hasn't sung a notel


 
 

Using articles a or the


For general and specific statements

Look at the pairs of sentences and circle the correct phrase.


The first time we mention something, we use a. If we mention it again, we use the: My uncle caught a big fish when he went fishing. Later, we cooked the fish for dinner.

We do not use the when we talk about things or people in general. Dogs moke very good pets.



Complete the sentences with a or the.


We use the to talk about specific things or people. The people in my street are very friendly. 'Where's me milk?' 'It's in the fridge.'


a Jan's husband gave her_______ gold watch for her

birthday.

b Julie and Sam have two children,______ girl and

._____ boy._______ boy is seven and_______ girl is

three.

с On Saturdays I work in_____ little shop in my

village..____ . shop sells souvenirs, sweets and

newspapers.

d China is______ really interesting country. Have

for lunch.

you been there?
e I bought_______ cheese sandwich and ______ cake

cake was delicious but

sandwich tasted horrible.

Zero for general statements

a Find and cross out the unnecessary the in each sentence below.

a Jh£ Cola is one of the most popular drinks in the world.

b It's not true that English people drink the tea all the time.

с Drinking the coffee helps me to wake up in the morning!

d People in the Argentina often have a barbecue at the weekend.

e The Japanese tea isn't the same as English tea.

f Have you heard the news? The price of the petrol is going up again!

g Marco says that the best ice cream comes from the Italy.

h In the some parts of the United States, you can't drive until you're eighteen.

'Where's coffee I(thecof^e^S1

'It's in the cupboard on the left.'

I always drinki^o/feey the coffee at breakfast time.

Swiss people / The Swiss people all learn two

languages at school.

The Swiss people I Swiss people in my class all speak German.

These days, it's easy to buy books / the books over the Internet.

Where are books I the books you borrowed from the library?

What's the weather I weather like today?

Some people think that people work harder in cold

weather / the cold weather.

Can you pass me salt I the salt please?

Salt / The salt is bad for you if you eat too much

of it.

This river is so polluted that all fish / the fish have died.

Eating fish / fhe fish is very good for your heart. 1 went to see Chicago last night: music / (he music was great!

I sometimes listen to the music I music when I'm working.


 
 

With geographical features

Read the Fact File about Japan. Complete the text using the or - .


 
 

(a) - Japan is not one island, but a group of over a thousand islands in (b) ____ Pacific

Ocean, in the east of (c)______ Asia. The four

largest islands are (d) Hokkaido,

(e)________ Honshu, (f)_________ Kyushu and

(g) Shikoku. Japan's nearest neighbours

are (h).________ North and South Korea across

(i).______ Sea of Japan, (j) China and

(k)________ Russian Federation. There are a

number of volcanic mountains, including

(I)______ Mount Fuji and (m)_________ Mount

Aso. Other important mountain ranges are

(n) _______ Chukogu Mountains and (o)__________

Japanese Alps not far from (p)_______ . Nagoya,

the third city. Hokkaido is the furthest north of the

main islands. The main city is (q)______ Sapporo

places are (s)

on (r)________ River Ishikari. Popular holiday

(t)

Kitami Mountains and

Lake Kussharo.


Phrases with and without the

Complete the sentences with the correct preposition, with or without the.

a I don't want to go out tonight. I'd like to stay
________ home for a change.

b I never have anything to eat_______ morning,

just a cup of coffee.

с There's a wonderful view of the city lights from this
window__________ night.

d The most beautiful scenery is _______ north of the

country.

e Marianne and her husband Tony first met when
they were_________ school.

f If you take your car to England, don't forget to drive
________ left!

g There's a small village ________ bottom of the

mountain.

h August is a very quiet time in the city - most people
are_________ holiday.

i 'What did you study________ university?'

'Economics and English.'

j I'd like to move out of the city and go and live

________ coast.

к Walk along Main Street for 200 metres, and you'll

see the railway station ._____ right.

1 'Can I speak to Joel please?'

'I'm afraid he's still.____ . bed!'

m Here's my office telephone number if you want to
ring me_________ work.

n Of all the hotels __________ centre of the city, I think

the Metropoie is the best.


 
 

Quantifiers with countable and uncountable nouns some, any and no

Complete the sentences with some, any or no.

a Helga can't work abroad because she doesn't speak

ОЩ foreign languages,
b Would you like____________

more coffee before you leave?

There are____________ letters

for you over there, on the table.

Do you have_____________

questions you'd like to ask me?

If there are__________ more

questions, we can finish now.
I'm afraid there's__________

ice cream in the fridge. How

about____________ fruit

instead?

Can you buy_____________

bread when you go to the supermarket?

I can't get a ticket from the machine - 1 haven't got

._____ change.

There are___________ . food

shops open in the village on a Sunday, so you'll have to eat in a restaurant.


much, many, a tot of, a few, no

в Look at the picture of Luke's bedroom. Complete the sentences about Luke using the words in the box.

much many a lot of a few no

much

space in his bedroom, books.

There are There is He's got __

work to do! videos.

computer games.

_ pictures on the wall,
water in the bottle.
. computer, and______


8 There are


plants in his room.


Listen and check. Practise saying the sentences.


much, many, too much, too many and nor enough

Complete the sentences using much, many, too much, too many or enough. Which sentences are true for you?

a I don't hove very "inch. free time during the week.

b 1 know that I eat________ chocolate and

_________ cakes.

с 1 don't usually do_______ exercise - unless I

have to run for the bus!
d I feel really tired because 1 didn't have_____

sleep last night,
e I don't know__________ people who speak English

well.

f I don't have_________ money to go on holiday this

year so I'll have to stay at home,
g I've got________ things to do today: I won't be

sugar in it.
mistakes in This

able to do them all.
h 1 don't like coffee which has _
i I don't think I've made___

exercise!

Vocabulary Geographical features

Choose a word from the box to complete the sentences.

h It's next to the sea; it can be rocky; you can see it

from the air.________

i They're usually straight; boats sail on them; Venice

is famous for them._________ .

j They cover a lot of space; they can divide countries;

sometimes you can drive over them.__________

Vocabulary booster: things you find in cities

a Write the words for the pictures.

a bridge a fountain skyscrapers a-stattre" a mosque a motorway a market a square a church a bus station a park an art gallery


the coastline canals volcanoes lakes deserts borders mountain ranges islands the climate overs-

et Bridges go over them; fish live in them; they always

go to the sea. rivers b Camels like them; they are very dry and often hot;

you don't need an umbrella in them.__________

с It can be hot or cold, wet or dry, you can't change it!

d You can swim in them and sail or windsurf on

them.__________

e They can be big or small; Ireland is one; they have

water all around them.__________

f They can be dangerous; sometimes they get very

hot; Sicily has a famous one.________

g You have to cross them to get from one country to
another.__________

1 a statue

4

b ■! »■ Listen and check. Practise saying the words.

с Divide the words into four categories.

Buildings Transport Open spaces Other
a church      
       
       
   
   

Listen and read

Read and listen to the rex: about volcanoes.



 
 

We have all seen pictures like this from time to time... perhaps you live in a country where there are volcanoes.

Here are some of the most frequently asked questions about volcanoes.

What are volcanoes?

A volcano is a mountain or hill with an opening through which steam, gases and lava from the centre of the Earth can escape into the air.

. What is lava?

Lava is red-hot rock which comes to the Earth's surface through the volcano. It has a temperature of about 1,000"C - ten times hotter than boiling water! Lava can move as fast as 55 kph ... faster than most animals can run.

. How many volcanoes are there in the world?

There are about 850 active volcanoes in the world. About sixty percent are in an area called the Ring of Fire in the Pacific Ocean. The largest active volcano is Mauna Loa on the island of Hawaii.

What's the difference between 'active' and 'extinct' volcanoes?

An active volcano can erupt at any time. Extinct volcanoes are volcanoes that have stopped erupting.

^ What happens when they erupt?

A volcano erupts when there is a violent escape of gases and lava from the volcano. In 79 ad, Mount Vesuvius in Italy erupted, destroying the Roman city of Pompeii. The worst volcanic disaster in the twentieth century was in Martinique, a French Island in the Caribbean Sea. A volcano called Mount Pelee near the town of St Pierre erupted on the morning of 8tn May 1902. Of the 30,000 people in St Pierre, just two survived.

L Can we predict when a volcano is going to erupt?

Nowadays, scientists usually know when a volcano is going to erupt. In 1991, the Pinatubo volcano,100 kilometres northwest of Manila in the Philippines, began one of the largest eruptions of the twentieth century. Thanks to the scientists' warnings, more than 100,000 people left the area before the volcano erupted on 15th June.


4 percentage of volcanoes which are in the Ring of Fire

5 location of Mauna Loa

6 date when Mount Vesuvius erupted

7 location of Martinique

S date when Mount Peiee erupted

9 number of people in St Pierre who died

10 number of people who survived

11 year when Pinatubo erupted

12 number of people who escaped


Pronunciation Compounds with two nouns

Improve your writing Notes giving directions



In English, there are many nouns made of two words (compound nouns). Notice the stress on the first word:

Look at the directions on pages 77 and 78 of the Students' Book. Write full sentences for


noun + noun:

-ing form 4 noun: petrol + station

dining + room


!=> petrol stotion

О dining room


a get off train / St Christopher's Station

Get t'ft"flu1 train fit St Christopher's Station. b come out of station / turn left

с walk / Station Road / about fifty metres



skyscraper bedroom computer game art gallery

UiSI Mark the stress on these compound nouns. Then listen and check.

a bus stop e

b motorway f

с telephone number g

d railway station h

d there / bus stop / on / right. Take / number 11 bus / to Sandy Bay

e get off / see large petrol station / on corner f cross road / walk about 100 metres



Real life

Asking for and giving directions

q a Correct the mistake in each of the о sentences below.

1 Excuse me, I'm looking Praed Street.

2 Can you give me some direction?

3 There's a post office on the corner. You can miss it.

4 How I can get to the hospital, please?

5 Carry past the supermarket and it's on your right.

6 How long time does it take to walk?

7 Walk Randall Street until you get to the library.

8 Turn right at end of this street, and I think that's Park Road.

b Put five of the sentences in part a in the correct place in the conversations.

1 a:

b: About twenty minutes, I'd say.

2 a:

6: I can try. Where do you want to go?

3 a: Excuse me, do you know where Park Road is?

в:

4 a: Excuse me, where's the nearest post office?
в: Go down to the end of this street:

5 a:______________________________________

b: Turn left just after the cafe - look, where that ambulance is going.

g take / first turning / left, where / see sign saying 'HolidayApartments'

h down hill towards sea / see 'Holiday Apartments' office on right. / open 9-5

Spelling

Same pronunciation, different spelling (homophones)

л r- a Many words in English have the same I о pronunciation, but different spelling and meaning:

There were two people sitting in the square. It was too dark to see anything.

b Underline the correct spelling of each word in the text below.

If you need to buy something to eat, there's a 'knew I new restaurant quite near 'hear/here which you could try: we 'ate/eight there last week and had a very good meal. When you come out of the house, turn 'right/write. Walk along the ^road/rode for about a 100 metres, °passed/past the bank, and you'll 'sea/see the restaurant on the corner. Make sure you get "their/there early, because the restaurant always gets very full 'buy/by about '"ate/eight o'clock.


       
   
 
 

may, might, will, definitely, etc. wllUwon't

a On 31st December 1999, Madame Sol -a world famous astrologer - made some predictions for the next ten years. Write out the sentences using will/won't.

1 There / be / a woman president of the United States

There will be a woman president of the_______

United States._________________________________ .

2 People / not use / cash / they / only use / credit cards

3 Astronauts / visit / the planet Mars

4 Great Britain / not have / a king or queen

b Write some predictions of your own about the next ten years, using the ideas in the sentences in part a.

There won't be a woman president in my country

in the next ten years.______________________

will probably I probably won't


 
 

2

Doctors believe that about 355,500 babies were born all around the world on New Year's Day 2000. New Zealand had the first Millennium baby. What can we predict about his life in the third millennium? Complete each sentence with will definitely/probably or definitely/probably won't.

He_________ celebrations. He_________ He_________ He

He и-'ill probribltj have a completely normal life.

remember the Millennium

be famous all his life.

millennium. He_________

be alive in the year 3000.

see a lot of changes in the third

g h
His parents___________ People around the world him in a few years.

speak English when he's older.

_______ . become rich.

__________ forget about


5 The countries of Western Europe / all use / the same currency

6 A terrible bug / destroy / the world's computers


may/might

Rewrite the sentences using may (not) or might (not) instead of the phrase in bold.

q It's possible that Martin will be at Sally's party on Saturday. Mfiitin тац/miaht be at SaWy's party cm StitnmViu. b Maybe we will go abroad for our holidays next year.

с Perhaps they won't be able to finish the work until next week.

ОYesterday

О Seiuitki. ког0!0)ре> to frfriefttl

ОTomorrow- ^

Your Daily Horoscope for Wednesday 17 May by Sylvia Fox

You might have an argument with an important person today. If this happens, you'll need help. A friend or partner will be very useful to you. And who knows ... you might win the argument!


Gemini


 
 

d Take your coat; it's possible that it will get cold later.

e Maybe your mother won't want to go out this evening.

This will be another busy work day for you: you'll have all the normal things to do, but there may also be an extra job or two. But don't worry, you'll succeed! And think how happy you'll be when you finish!


X


 
 

f Perhaps Martha will not be able to help you.

g Maybe the Prime Minister will resign if things don't get better.


h Buy a lottery ticket: it's possible that you'll win £1 million!

This will be your lucky day for education! If you're still at school, it'll be a good day for study - something you've always thought was too hard for you will be easy. If you've already left school, think about going back to your studies - you won't regret it!



will/won 't/may/might

в Read the daily horoscope opposite. Which sign:

1 may have family problems?

Cancer______

2 will have a good day at school?

There will be some money worries today. Check what you're spending - you may need to spend some extra money on travel, but if you buy something for a loved one, they may not thank you for it!



3 might need more money than
usual? _______________

4 will have more things to do
than usual? ________________

5 may get very angry?


b Underline all the examples of predictions in the text.

с Listen to some of the predictions. Practise saying the sentences.


Present tense after if, when, before and other time words Present tense after if

Match the beginnings of the sentences in A with the endings in В and write out the complete sentences.



a If the weather / be / good this weekend

b If you / work / hard

с If you / be / late for class again

d If you / not get up / soon

e If the train / arrive / on time

f If you / not take / a map

g If we / see / a restaurant

В

you / pass / all your exams we / be / home before midnight you / get / lost

your teacher / get / very annoyed we / have / a barbecue we / stop / for lunch you / be / late for class


a If tin' weather's gooA this weekend, we'W have a barbecue.
b_________________________________________________________

с d e f

а

Time clauses: if, when, before, as soon as

_ Circle the best way to complete each sentence.

a I promise to telephone у о u(asjoon asy before / if\ arrive, b As soon as / Iff When you don't leave me alone, I'll call the police! What are you going to do as soon as / if/ when you finish university? If we drive quickly, we'll probably get home before / if/ when it gets dark.

This exam is very important for Margaret; as soon as / if/ when she passes, she can go to university, f 'Please check you have all your luggage as soon as / if/ when you leave the train.' g As soon as / Before I If you go, could you give me your e-mail address? h Promise to tell me the news as soon as / before / if you hear anything, i I'm sure I'll be married as soon as / if/ when I'm thirty.


Word order

-j Put the words in the correct order to make sentences.

a will / win / probably /1 / Germany / think / the football match.

I think limmiiui w\\\ pri'biihlu n'in the ЯчкЬч\\ intiti'h.

b be / There / won't / any / tonight / snow / definitely

с will / tomorrow / be / Stefan / definitely / at home

d the answer / know / probably / to your question / won't / He



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