HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT AT BALORNOCK, SCOTLAND
The development consists of eight multi-storey blocks comprising a total of 1356 flats. The flats, ranging from one to four rooms, are accommodated in two slab blocks (with 26 and 28 storeys respectively) and in six 31-storey point blocks. Each slab block has three vertical circulation cores, while each point block has one core.
Slab blocks are 93 x 11 m overall on plan, rising to 77 m and 71 m above ground level while four point blocks are 22.90 x 15.25 m and two point blocks - 30.50 x 18.30m overall on plan with height above ground level being 84 m.
The structural steelwork for all the buildings transmits the vertical loads and also the horizontal wind forces. Internal and external columns continue through three storeys and are interconnected in both directions by floor beams. Beams and columns are of I-section; all connections are bolted. Wind-bracing is achieved by vertical lattice systems in the walls between the flats and by rigid interconnection of floor beams and columns to multi-storey portal frames in the external walls and in the internal walls near the cores. Structural co-operation of the portal frames and lattice bracings is ensured by the rigid floors. To increase rigidity, the external columns and perimeter beams of the point blocks are encased in concrete up to the 10th floor. For a wind pressure of 150kg/m2 the lateral deflection of the buildings is calculated as less than 1/500 of the height of the building.
Continuous reinforcement is incorporated over the floor beams. Floor slabs are connected to the steel beams by means of welded shear studs in pairs at 60cm centres.
In all, 704 reinforced concrete piles with 3.5 m average length were used for building foundation bearing on sandstone and shale. The piles are 90 cm in diameter.
co-operation n. взаимодействие
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. How many flats do the blocks comprise?
2. What kinds of blocks does the development consist of?
3. How do the blocks differ (отличаться, различаться) in height?
4. What is the cross section of beams and columns?
5. How is wind-bracing achieved?
6. Why are the external columns and perimeter beams of the point blocks encased in concrete?
7. What kind of foundation was used?
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