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* Avoid - уникати -15-


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LESSON 14

ТЕМА: MOUNTAIN SHEEP ГРАММАТИКА І ЛЕКСИКА:

1. Складне підмет при присудків
 seem, is likely, is unlikely, §8

2. Функції інфінітива (повторення)

3. Тимчасові форми дієслова (повторення)

4. Причетні обороти (повторення)

5. Значення слова "much"

6. "the former, the latter"

I. Слова і вирази для повторення.

Sheep, management, valuable, to grow, to supply, hay, healthy, vigorous, purebred, grain, in the fall, to keep, thrifty condition, unless, supplementary, breeding condition

* Test- перевіряти

II. Визначте, до якої частини мови відносяться наступні слова, і переведіть їх, не користуючись словником.

1. to protect, protected, protecting, protective, protection, protector

2. care, to care, careful, careless, carefully

3. to move, movement, moving, movable, unmovable

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III. Переведіть такі пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на;

seem

> По - видимому, ймовірно

is likely

is unlikely - навряд чи

1. The balanced ration is likely to supply all the necessary nutrients to the animals. 2. These pigs seem to require more vitamins. 3. This cow is unlikely to produce more milk. 4. The live weight of this pig does not seem to be more than 150 pounds.

MOUNTAIN SHEEP

Sheep raising is one of the most important branches of animal husbandry. Sheep are reared for two purposes: wool and mutton production.

In sheep kept for mutton early maturity and quality of meat are known to be most important. Mutton is likely to be muchmore valuable than wool in Great Britain. The reverse is true for Australia, South Africa and other countries where the Merino is predominant.

The necessary qualities common to all breeds of sheep are hardiness, prolificacy, milking capacity of ewes, activity and good wool characters.

There are two main divisions of sheep in Great Britain which have to be carefully differentiated. They are mountain flocks and lowground flocks. The former are kept for breeding purposes only, the latter are kept for fattening as well as breeding.

As to the hill sheep feeding it is considered to be the simplest and most natural method of sheep-rearing. The flock is very hardy and eats all kinds of moses and grasses growing on hills and these seem to be sufficient for the sheep.

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Supplementary feeding is unlikely to take place in ordinary years, unless the ground is heavily covered with snow. Winter being very stormy, however, it becomes necessary to supply the sheep with hay during the period when the ground is covered. If only a thin layer of snow covers the ground most sheep seem to be able to find the feed, provided the surface la not frozen hard. Where hay can not be supplied some sheep farmers provide the flock with maize and turnips.

To improve the offspring only healthy, vigorous rams are chosen for breeding purposes. Pastures being good, little grain is fed to the rams. Concentrates are fed before the breeding time and during it to keep the rams in breeding condition during the mating campaign. Rams being in thin flesh, some linseed meal may be added to the grain part of their ration.

Пояснення до тексту

1. the reverse is true - зворотне явище характерне

2. milking capacity - молочність

Запам'ятайте:

1. seem to - мабуть, ймовірно

is likely to - мабуть, ймовірно

is unlikely to - навряд чи

2. the former - перший (з двох вищеназваних явищ або предметів)

the latter- останній (другий)

3. much - I. багато (перед іменником)

2. набагато, значно (перед прикметником в порівняльної ступеня)

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Активні слова і вирази

to rear, wool, mutton, hardy, mountain flock, lowground flock, to choose (chose, chosen), ram, ewe, milking capacity, to improve, offspring, much, the former, the latter, hardiness

IV. Переведіть пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на "seem, is likely, is unlikely".

1. The period of weaning is likely to bevery important in a pig's life. 2. Newly-weaning pigs are unlikely to grow well with two feeds. 3. Pasture is likely to provide the necessary nutrients for pigs. 4. The amount of iron and copper which is in sow's milk is unlikely to be sufficient foryoung pigs. 5. A thin slop of milk, wheat middlings and oatmeal seems to be the best feed for 3or 4 week old pigs. 6. This pig does not seem to weigh 200 pounds. 7. The conditions in this piggery are unlikely to be sanitary. 8. This breed of sheep is likely to be very hardy. 9. Milking capacity is unlikely to be most important is sheep kept for wool.

V. Визначте функції інфінітива в наступних реченнях, переведіть.

1. The main aim of rearing sheep in Great Britain is to produce mutton 2. The ram to be used for breeding purposes ought to bepure-bred. 3. Thisram isunlikely to produce a good offspring. 4. Creep feeding of young pigs and calves is known to be widely practiced in our region. 5. To wean pigs at the duetime is very important. 6. Our main task is to improve this breed of dairy cows. 7. The farmers want this beef breed to be improved. 8. Thorough cleaning and disinfection of the piggery are necessary to prevent infection. 9. For the weakest pig to develop normally it should be put in a warm place after birth.

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VI. Визначте час і заставу присудка в наступних пропозиціях;

переведіть.

1. Sheep are kept for wool in our region. 2. Sheep have been kept here for 2 000 years. 3. Sheep are fed hay in winter. 4. Sheep are being fed now. 5. Sheep have been fed. 6. The sheepman feed the sheep with hay in winter. 7. If the winter is very stormy, the sheepman will feed the sheep with hay. 8. Sheep are supplied with turnips when hay is not available. 9. Last year the sheep were supplied with good-quality hay.

VII. Визначте функції слів із закінченням -ing в наступних пропозиціях; переведіть.

1. Feeding hill sheep is a simple problem. 2. They keep the sheep for fattening. 3. The rearing of sheep is one of the main branches of animal husbandry. 4. The sow being prolific, the farmer may keep her up to 5 years or longer. 5. Weaning taking place 7 or 8 weeks after farrowing, the sow may farrow twice a year. 6. Using rotational grazing, farmers control diseases and parasites. 7. The bedding being short, the pigs may move freely. 8. Being weaned at the due time, the pigs will gain in weight rapidly. 9 »Raising pigs on good pasture, we fatten them quickly. 10. A thin layer of snow covering the ground, the sheep will feed as usual. 11. Locating the feed some distance from the pen, we make the animals to take exercise. 12. Animals receiving balanced rations grow and develop well.

VIII. Переведіть пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на значення виділених слів.

а) 1. Much water and salt should always be available for cattle. 2. The new sow is much more prolific than the old one. 3. Much wool has been obtained from each sheep in this flock. 4. Concentrates should be fed much more liberally, provided the ram is in thin flesh.

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b) 1. Cattle are grouped into dairy cattle andbeef cattle. The former are widely raised in our region. The latter are raised in the South where pastures are used throughout the year. 2. Of these two methods the latter is the most effective. 3. We feed our sheep either maize or hay. The former is used, provided hay is not available.

IX. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:

1. What are sheep reared for in England?

2. What is the main purpose of keeping sheep in Australia?

3. What are the two divisions of sheep in Great Britain?

4. Why is hill sheep feeding the simplest method of sheep-rearing?

5. When is it necessary to provide the sheep with hay or maize?

6. What kind of rams should be chosen for breeding purposes?

7. How should the rams be fed to be in breeding condition?

X.Переведіте на англійську мову.

а) вівцематка, баран, витривалість, потомство, плодючість, молочність, перший, шерсть, баранина, гірські вівці, останній, низинні вівці, набагато, вибирати, покращувати, отара

б) I. Вівці дають шерсть і баранину. 2. Витривалість, плодючість, молочність є важливими якостями овець. 3. В Англії є два види овець: гірські вівці і низинні вівці. Останніх розводять на відгодівлю. 4. Вівцематки і барани, які обираються для спаровування, повинні бути в хорошій заводської кондиції.

в) I. У Росії є понад 70 порід і порідних груп овець; тому можна вибрати найбільш підходящу породу для кожної кліматичної зони країни. 2. Завдання вівчарів полягає в тому, щоб збільшити поголів'я овець і підвищити їх продуктивність. 3.В організмі овець накопичується багато жиру, завдяки цьому мінімальна кількість корму і води буває досить їм у важкі періоди влітку і взимку.

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4. М'ясна продуктивність і молочність овець ймовірно багато в чому залежать від ранньої відбиття ягнят від матерів. 5. На відміну від інших сільськогосподарських тварин, вівці значно краще використовують пасовищні і грубі корми.

XI. Прочитайте текст і викладіть стисло його зміст по-англійськи (по-російськи).

Feeding Sheep in the USA

Sheep are best adapted to the land that is high and dry. In general sheep rearing is not practised in regions where it is both too hot and too wet *.

In feeding sheep succulent feeds and roughages as well as good pasture grasses and legume hay may be used in great amounts. Grazing land is usually divided into small plots by movable fencing. Rotational grazing of pastures helps to control diseases and parasites.

As to grains corn is the main low-protein concentrate available in many parts of the United States. Some ether grains are also used in feeding sheep. Grain crops sown ** is the fall provide pasture for sheep during late fall, winter and early spring, Wheat, barley and rye make good winter forage. Where good-quality legume hay is available high-protein concentrates are likely to be unnecessary.

 * Wet - сирої
 ** Sow - сіяти - 22 -


LESSOS 15

ТЕМА: Lowground sheep ГРАММАТИКА І ЛЕКСИКА:

1. Складні форми причастя I (повторення)

2. Форми з закінченням-ing (повторення)

3. Союз whether

I. Слова і вирази для повторення.

to manage, to produce, lamb, roughage, nutrient, amount, to increase, to decrease, depending on, birth, to eat, grass, solid, growth, succulent, available, as well, daily, a day, either ... or

II. Дайте російські еквіваленти наступних інтернаціональних слів.

form, formal, formally, formation, historic, population, combination, contribution, canal, structure, sort

LOWGROUND SHEEP

Most lowground flocks are either kept for providing high-class breeding animals, chiefly rams, or they are managed so as to produce as many fat lambs as possible.

Being fed good roughage during the early part of the pregnancyperiod, the pregnant ewes are supplied with the necessary nutrients to be in good condition. Placing the feed some distance from the pen the sheepmen make the ewes take exercise. For a period of 4 to 6 weeks before lambing grain is to be added to the ewe's ration. Whether the amount ofgrain to be fed should be increased is decided, depending on the ewe's condition.

Ewes are known to lamb in a lambing pen. Like the farrowing or calving pens the lambing pen should be cleaned, disinfected and ventilated before the ewe is put into it. The lambing pen should be dry and warm.

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On the fat-lamb producing farms a creep feeding is commonly practised. Having been arranged on pasture, the creep allows the lambs to eat the best fresh grass while the ewes following them eat everything left by the lambs.

Pastures are divided into several small paddocks by temporary fencing, each being grazed for 3 to 4 days. Then the sheep are moved to the next one. In this way the sheep are always eating fresh and clean grass.

In addition to feeding on pasture lowground flocks are provided with concentrated rations in troughs. Having finished feeding the sheep, the sheepraiser turns the trough upside down and leaves it so until the next feeding comes. Hay is widely used in feeding the sheep as well. Silage is also fed but to a limited extent.

Sheep grow better, when fed a concentrated ration twice daily. Young lambs should be fed three times a day.

During dry weather in spring or early summer the ewes should be given as much water as they desire, for in this case the milk flow for the lambs will be maintained even though there be little or no growth of succulent grass available.

Пояснення до тексту

1. so as to produce - так, щоб виробляти

2. pregnancy period - суягность

3. pregnant ewe - суягних вівця

4. upside down - догори дном
 5. even though - навіть, якщо

Запам'ятайте: Whether - Чи

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Активні слова і вирази

to lamb, trough, pregnant ewe, pregnancy period, lambing pen, whether

III. Складіть пропозиції, поєднуючи підходящі за змістом частини.

1. Most lowground flocks are kept a. are divided into small paddocks.

2. Pregnant ewes are given b. are fed three times a day.

3. Lambing pens c. are fed in troughs.
 4. Creeps are practised d. for breeding.

5. Pastures e. on fat-lamb producing farms.

6. Concentrates f. some grain before lambing.

7. Young lambs g. are kept clean and dry.

IV. Переведіть пропозиції. Зверніть увагу на переклад складних форм причастя I.

1. Having chosen a pure-bred ram, the farmer achieved a great improvement in the offspring. 2. Being used sparingly, the ram will be vigorous and active for a long time. 3. Having been provided with good pasture, the lambs developed well. 4. Being allowed to run with the ewes all the time, the ram may serve up to 50 ewes a season. 5. Having been divided into paddocks, the pasture area was used properly. 6. Having divided the pasture into paddocks, the farmers used it properly. 7. Having grazed one paddock thoroughly the farmer moved the sheep to another one. 8. Being kept on pasture in summer, the sheep ought to bе provided with shade. 9. Having fed the sheep, the sheepman turned the troughs upside down. 10. Having been fed concentrates, sheep were turned out to pasture.

V. Переведіть такі пропозиції. Визначте функції слів із закінченням - ing.

1. Keeping the ram away from the flock is a very good practice.

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2. Hand mating being practised, the ram may serve 50 to 75 ewes a season. 3. The farmers growing oats and legumes together obtain very good hay for sheep. 4. The best ration for pregnant ewes is clean, palatable roughage, a little grain and succulent feed being fed as well. 5. Having weaned the lambs, the breeders should give unpalatable feeds to the ewes in order to decrease the secretion of milk. 6. A mixture consisting of two parts of oats and one part of bran is a good feed for sheep. 7. Dividing the pasture into small paddocks by fencing, sheep raisers supply their sheep with clean and fresh grass during the grazing season. 8. Good succulent feeds increasing milk flow, the breeders should give them to ewes after lambing. 9. The adding of grain to the ewe's ration 4 or 6 weeks before lambing is necessary. 10. Having been supplied with enough ewes 'milk, the lambs were weaned at the age of 5 month.

VI. Переведіть пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на союз "whether".

1. Не asked the sheepman whether the lambs had already been fed.2.Whether lambs are weaned at the age of 3 or 5 months depends on the amount of milk that the ewe has. 3. The farmer is interested whether the lambs are provided with enough dry bedding.4. Whether the young sheep are fed two or three times daily is decided by the breeder, depending on their condition. 5. The amount of supplementary feeding depends on whether the pasture is good or bad.

VII. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:

1. What are lowground sheep kept for?

2. What feed are pregnant ewes fed during the early part of the
 pregnancy period?

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3. How do breeders make the pregnant ewes take exercise?

4. Is creep feeding often practised in raising lambs?

5. In which case will the sheep eat fresh and clean grass all the time?

6. What additional feeding are lowground sheep provided with?

7. How many times a day should the sheep be fed a concentrated feed?

VIII. Переведіть на англійську мову.

а) суягних вівцематка, суягность, окот (ягнение), окотная кліть, годівниця, чи

б) I. Перебуваючи на пасовище, ягнята розвиваються добре. 2. Відібравши племінних баранів, тваринник поліпшив свою отару. 3. Окотная кліть повинна утримуватися в належному стані. 4. суягних овець треба добре годувати.

в) I. Інтенсивна відгодівля овець збільшує кількість відгодовуваних тварин при одних і тих же кормових ресурсах. 2. Новонароджені ягнята повинні отримувати перші материнське молоко не пізніше, ніж через півгодини після народження. 3. Щоб отримувати велику кількість ягнят, необхідно підвищувати вгодованість овець перед злучкою. 4. Чим більше молодняку ??в отарі, тим вище її продуктивність, тому що молодняк росте швидше, ніж дорослі тварини. 5. Концентрат особливо корисні баранів-виробникам, зростаючому молодняку ??і підсисних маток.

IX. Прочитайте текст і виконаєте завдання, дане після тексту.

Fattening Lambs

Lambs in farm flocks should be fed well from birth. When lambs are suckling their mothers on good pasture, little or no grain is needed to the ewes. If pasture grasses are of low quality, creep feeding can be arranged on pasture or some grain mау be fed to the ewes to increase their milk production.

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Lambs start to eat solid feeds at the age of two weeks or a little later. Half corn and half oats make a good mixture. Another suitable mixture consists of corn, oats, wheat bran and some protein supplement in proper proportion. For the first two weeks grain for lambs should be ground. The lambs being older than two weeks, grinding is unnecessary.

If lambs are suckling their dams on good pasture, they can reach 80 to 90 lb. in weight in 4-5 months. The mutton at this stage is of the best quality.

Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:

1. How may lambs be fed if pasture grasses are poor?

2. When do lambs begin to eat solid feeds?
 3. What are the two best mixtures for lambs?

4. How many months are required for lambs to reach 80-90 lb. in weight?

Повторення теми "SHEEP"

I. Прочитайте текст. Складіть план до тексту по-англійськи.

Sheep

Sheep are best adapted to the land that is high and dry, though they may be raised successfully on almost any land that is not too wet. Sheep raising is usually not practised in regions that have a combination of high temperatures and high rainfall *.

To keep the sheep healthy, they should be moved from one grazing area to another. This practice requires fences to divide permanent pastures into several grazing areas. Movable fencing may be used to regulate grazing of forage crops. Sheep do not need grain ifgood pasture is available.

 * Rainfall - опади


Legume hays should make up a large part of the ewes 'winter ration. After the lambs are born grain may be fed to ewes and lambs to supplement available forage.

A strong, healthy lamb needs little care. A weak lamb should be put into a warm place for about two hours after birth. The lamb should be returned to its mother as soon as * it is strong enough to nurse. If the lamb can not nurse, bottle ** feeding may be necessary.

II. Прочитайте текст і виконаєте завдання, дане після тексту.

Feeding Pregnant Ewes

During the early part of the pregnancy period plenty of good roughage provides sufficient nutrients, unless the ewes are unusually thin. Feed part of the roughages at a distance from the pen to make ewes take exercise.

For a period of 4 to 6 weeks before lambing grain is to be added to the ration of the ewes. Feed the grain earlier if the ewes are thin. About 1/2 lb. of oats, corn or other grains or a mixture of grains is fed per ewe per day. If the roughage is of poor quality, feed some high-protein feed in addition to grain.

Ewes that are kept on pasture in winter should have some roughages preferably legume hay in addition to pasturage in periods of poor grazing due to storms or poor grass.

When legume hay isof poor quality or is not available, it may be well to feed a mineral mixture.

Вкажіть, які твердження не відповідають змісту тексту.

a) Thin ewes are given plenty of roughage at the early part of the pregnancy period.

b) Ewes are given grain at the last part of the pregnancy period.



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* As soon as - як тільки

** Bottle - пляшка


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с) When pastures are poor ewes are given some mineral mixture.

III. Прочитайте текст. Озаглавьте абзаци тексту.

Feeding the Ewe and her Lamb

After lambing the ewe and her lambs are to be kept together in a special lambing pen for 2 to 4 days. At this time the ewe is fed legume hay and plenty of water is provided for her. After 2 or 3 days a small amount of grain is added. This is increased gradually to 1 pound per ewe per day.

When ewes and their lambs are placed on pasture, no extra feeding of ewes is necessary, provided the pasture grass is good.

IV. Прочитайте текст. Дайте відповідь по-російськи на питання: Який корм є основним для баранів?

Feeding Rams

Feed rams similarly to ewes, but allow larger amounts of roughages. Except for the breeding season, when some grain should be fed, the ration can consist of good-quality roughage.

LESSON 16 ТЕМА: HORSES ГРАММАТИКА:

1. Особливі випадки вживання і перекладу
 присудків в пасивному стані, § 20

2. Причастя II (Past Participle) як
 праве означення до іменника,
 § 16

3. Функції причастя II (повторення)

I. словa і вирази для повторення.

horse, exercise, pasture, scarce, oats, water, suitable, colostrum, to do well, dam, mixed hay, legume hay, sire, maintain, protein, bran, age, pregnant, to wean, as well as, the .. . the, a day, as high as possible, stanchion, wheat, straw

II. Визначте, до якої частини мови відносяться наступні слова, і переведіть їх не користуючись словником.

1. hill, hilly

2. mountain, mountainous

3. hardiness, hardy, hardier, hardiest

4. predominant, predominance, to predominate

III. Переведіть такі пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на присудок в пасивному стані.

1. The ewes are given roughages at the period of pregnancy. Lambs are allowed to pasture during the warm part of the day. 3. They were told to clean the sheeppen. 4. Spring is followed by summer. 5. Milk yields are influenced* By the quality of feed and the age of the cow. 6. This new breed of dairy cattle was spoken about at the last conference. 7. Corn fodder is liked by livestock. 8. Animal husbandry is paid a great attention to.

IV. Переведіть такі пропозиції, звертаючи увагу на причастя II (Past Participle) як визначення до попереднього іменника.

1. The quality of the feed fed is rather high. 2. The animals examined are healthy. 3. The eggs collected were sent to the market. 4. The milk analysed contained much fat. 5. We spoke about the method of feeding used.



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* Influenced - впливати

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HORSES

Horses are usually classed аs light horses and work horses. Light horses are used for riding and racing while work horses are used forpulling wagons, plows and other implements.

As with all pregnant animals, the brood mare should be maintained in fair flesh and permitted or forced to get regular and moderate exercise. Confinement and overfeeding are known to be harmful for the health of the animal. Pasture which provides green feed, exercise andsunshine is an excellent environment for brood mares. Pasture grasses being scarce or not available, the mаre should be provided with good-quality legume or mixed hay. The mare is given oats to maintain her in good, strong flesh but not fat.

After foaling the mare and her foal should be kept in a foaling box-stall for the first three or four days. Warm water is very desirable for the mare after foaling. Bran is suitable as her first meal which should be followed by oat hay.

The first milk, colostrum, is a necessity for the young foal. Thefoal will begin to nibble at grass at about three weeks. It does best, having been allowed to run with its dam for five or six months or for longer period in the case of the pedigree stock. Foals should be weaned at 4 to 6 months of age and weaning be done carefully. Take the mare from the foal quietly and far enough for the foal not to hear its mother. After weaning the foal is fed good mixed or legume hay, the amount of oats given depending on its size, appetite and condition. Such feeding should be followed until spring comes when the foal is turned out to pasture.

The young stallion is known to be used not earlier than at the age of three years. The condition of the sire is influenced, to a great extent, by the kind of the ration given.

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It should be rich in protein, minerals and vitamins. 0ats with a proper proportion of chaff, bran and hay make the main ration of a horse. The amount of feed fed depends on the quality of the feed given, the age of the horse, as well as on the nature of the work the horse does. In general the heavier the work, the larger the proportion ofgrains in the ration.

Feed the horse four times per day. The second and the last feeds should be large and should be followed by hay. The last feed should be as late as possible and should be followed by the greater part of hay. Large feeds should not be given after very hard work.

Пояснення до тексту

1. brood mare - лошат кобила, племінна кобила

2. to nibble at grass - щипати траву
 3. pedigree stock - племінні тварини

Активні слова і вирази

light horse, work horse, mare, brood mare, to foal, a foal, foaling box-stall, pedigree stock, stallion, to influence, to follow

VI. Виберіть відповідне за змістом слово; переведіть.

1. (Light, work, heavy) horses are used to do different kinds of work. 2. The brood mare is to be maintained in (thin, fair) flesh. 3. Exercise is very important for the (healthy, health) of the horse.

4. The new-born foal is given some (skim milk, colostrum, milk substance). 5. After (farrowing, calving, foaling, lambing) the mare is given some warm water. 6. The (quality, quantity) of the grain to be given to the foal is 2 to 3 lbs per day. 7. The quantity of the feed is (followed, influenced, allowed) by the work done by the horse. 8. Large feeds are not given immediately (for, before, after) hard work.

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VI. Виділіть в кожному реченні присудок в пасивному стані; переведіть.

1. These two work horses are spoken about as the best ones on this farm. 2. The condition of the brood mare is influenced by regular and moderate exercises. 3. The mare and her foal have been allowed to be on pasture all the time. 4. This new-born foal was given colostrum for four days. 5. When the mare is working, she should not be followed by her foal. 6. Foals are usually allowed to run with their dams for five or six months. 7. Warm water is given to the mare after foaling. 8. The amount of the grain in the ration is influenced by the nature of the work done by the horse. 9. Very hard work was followed by long rest.



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