Concepts and theory of land planning
Exercise1. Read and translate following words:
Adopt, option, top-down, encourage, rural, recreational, activities, between, wildlife, matching, framework, target, weighting, participation, impact, resolve, agricultural, overexploitation.
Exercise 2. Read and translate following word combinations:
Systematic assessment, without degrading, social aspect, implementation and monitoring of plans, assistance to decision makers, most beneficial, the most satisfying results, the planning cycles, erosion hazard, local targets, popular awareness, agricultural land use planning, wider framework, both advantages and disadvantages, higher level support.
Exercise 3. Read and translate the text:
Rural and Agricultural Land Use Planning
Land use planning can be defined as the systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternative systems of land use and other physical, social and economic conditions. The purpose is to select and adopt land use options which are the most beneficial to land users without degrading the resources or the environment, together with the selection of measures most likely to encourage such land uses.
In the broadest meaning of the term, land use planning deals with planning for all types of land use (rural, urban, industrial, recreational, etc.). Land use planning involves many aspects of planning such as designing planning options, evaluation of feasibility (economic, environmental, social impact assessment), providing assistance to decision maker, implementation and monitoring of plans.
Rural land use planning is concerned with all (economic) activities in rural areas, such as agriculture, pastoralism, forestry, wildlife conservation and tourism. Besides evaluation of the potential of different activities, rural land use planning assists in resolving conflicts of interests between groups of land users.
Some of the key aspects of agricultural land use planning are physical and socio-economic ones. Physical aspects involve land evaluation (mapping, analysis, suitability matching), identification of opportunities For change (improve existing land use system, suggest new land use systems), natural resources management (sustainable land use systems).
The objectives of socio-economic aspects include identification of target groups, weighting options and connection with other administration / planning. Such land legislation as access to land, ownership of resources, land reforms are also included in socio-economic aspects as well as training technical staff, farmers and financial framework like credit schemes and products marketing.
Land is a limited resource and the misuse of land can lead to such problem as non-sustainable land use: processes of overexploitation (overgrazing, deforestation, erosion hazard).
We need to conserve land resources for future use through sustainable land uses. For successful land use planning it is important to determine the best use of the land. It is necessary to take into consideration efficiency, equity, acceptability and sustainability of the land. At the same time conflicts of interests between land users should be resolved.
Exercise 4. Find synonyms among these words:
Local, start, benefit, advantage, option, vantage, choice, begin, regional, income.
Exercise 5. Find antonyms among these words:
Satisfied, find, high, popular, encourage, low, unpopular, lose, narrow, wide, discourage, unsatisfied.
Exercise 6. Translate following word combinations into English:
Людина, яка приймає рішення, сільськогосподарське землевпорядкування, оцінка можливості, небезпека ерозії, обмежений ресурс, великі площі, регіональний рівень, «спадний» землевпорядкування (ініціатива зверху), «висхідний» землевпорядкування (ініціатива знизу), зберігати земельні ресурси, стратегія планування, великі переваги , варіант землеустрою, покладатися тільки на одну стратегію, навколишнє середовище.
Exercise 7. Translate following sentences into English:
1. Землевпорядники ніколи не повинні покладатися тільки на одну стратегію. 2. Ми потребуємо консервації земельних ресурсів. 3. Землеустрій здійснюється на державному, регіональному та місцевому рівнях. 4. Процес планування заснований на кадастрової зйомки земельних ресурсів. 5. Водопостачання є однією з основних проблем людини. 6. Существуютразниестратегііпланірованія.
Exercise 8. Make up your own sentences using following words:
1. Option, best, which, the, is? 2. Are, legislations, many, there, land, for, planning, use. 3. Highest, there, year, crop, last, was, the. 4. Now, working, are, we. 5. Is, limited, land, resource, a. 6. Need, conserve, resources, we, to, land. 7. Are, strategies, there, different, two, planning.
Exercise 9.Fill in the gaps with prepositions:
1. Different types ... land use planning are usually described. 2. ... traditional society, people use up-to-date methods ... crop production. 3 The methods and types ... planting and harvesting are always based ... traditions. 4. Year ... year, little is changed. 5. ... Britain equal pay ... women did not obtain legal sanctions ... the 1970s.
Exercise 10. Answer these questions:
1. How can land use planning be defined? What is the purpose of land use planning? 3. What does land use planning deal with? 4. Does land use planning include many aspects? 5. What are the key aspects of agricultural land use planning? 6. Is land a limited resource? 7. Do we need to conserve land resources for future use? 8. What is important for successful land use planning?
Exercise 11. Retell the text.
Exercise 12. Read and translate the text.
Methods of Land Use Planning
The planning process should be based on the cadastral survey of land resources. The present situation must be taken into consideration. The land use planner is to decide what needs should be changed and how the changes can be made. He is also to find out which is the best option and how far is the plan succeeded.
This progression of questions has led to the formulation of a guide to land use planning - the planning cycle.
Land use planning is implemented at the national, regional or local level. At the national level land use policy is balanced upon the competing demands for land among different sectors of the economy - food production, export crops, wildlife conservation, housing and public amenities, roads, industry.
National development plans and budget must be also taken into consideration as well as project identification and the allocation of resources for development. Sectorial agencies involved in land use must be coordinated. Legislation on such subjects as land tenure, forest clearance and water rights should be worked out by all means.
Regional level includes such sitting of new developments as settlements, forest plantations and irrigation schemes. The need for improved infrastructure such as water supply, roads and marketing facilities is one of the main problems of this cycle. The development of management guidelines for improved kinds of land use on each type of land is also necessary.
Land use planning is oriented to local conditions in terms of both method and content. Planning approaches often fail because global models and implementation strategies are applied and taken over automatically and uncritically. But land use planning is not a standardized procedure which is uniform in its application world-wide. Its content is based on an initial regional or local situation analysis.
Local level provides the layout of drainage, irrigation and soil conservation work as well as the sitting of specific crops on suitable lands.
Exercise 13. Writу the sentences in Past Simple Tense:
1. Land is a limited resource. 2. There are different land use issues. 3. Misuse of land leads to several problems. 4. The advantage includes people's benefit. 5. Bottom-up planning means active participation of land users. 6. Land use policy depends upon the competing demands for land. 7. Physical aspects involve natural resource management.
Exercise 14. Make up the questions:
1. I am a land use planning engineer. 2. Land is a limited resource. I The land legislation decided financial problems last month.4. The and use planners will discuss the best options tomorrow. 5. Bottom-up and use planning includes both advantages and disadvantages.
Exercise 15. Fill in the gaps with forms of the verb to have:
1. Each planning strategy ... its own advantages. 2. We ... many friends. 3. Bottom-up land use planning ... some disadvantages. 4. Next year this student ... ... a diploma of a land use planner. 5. Last year students ... many interesting subjects.
Інфінітив (Infinitive)- Нелічнаяформаглагола, обозначающаядействиеилисостояниебезотносительноклицу, егосовершающему.
1) Інфінітив може бути підметомв реченні.
EXAMPLE: те sleep in the open air is pleasant.
To speak much was not necessary.
2) Інфінітив може бути прямим доповненням.
EXAMPLE:Чи не likes to write with a fountain-pen.
My sister asked me to go there with her.
3) Інфінітив може бути іменною частиною складеного присудка.
EXAMPLE:Her duty is to answer all letters.
Але у інфінітива є і дієслівні функції в реченні.
1) За інфінітивом слід пряме доповнення:
EXAMPLE:I like to read interesting stories.
2) Інфінітив визначається власною мовою
EXAMPLE: It is necessary to study systematically.
3) Інфінітив може входити до складу складного присудка
EXAMPLE:Чи не must work very hard.
They began to speak English last year.
4) Інфінітив має форми часу і застави:
English handbook for the third year students of the specialty «Land use planning and Cadastres» of the secondary specialized educational establishments | Астрахань 2013 | The Individual and Society | GRAMMAR: PASSIVE VOICE | Exercise 4.Open the brackets using the verbs in Present, Past, Future Simple. Translate. | Main Directions in Land Use Planning | GRAMMAR: PAST AND FUTURE PERFECT | Unit III | Exercise 8. Read and translate the text. | Exercise 9.Make up the nouns from the following verbs. |