(1) Today's forward-thinking organizations are recognizing that people are their most vital resource and an integral part for achieving increased productivity. Therefore, many firms are getting much more involved in continuing education and development programs for their employees. Career development is no longer just a system of promotions and occasional training programs. Rather, it is a long - term organizational strategy for assisting employees to optimize their skills and advance their education.
(2) Training and development include all attempts to improve employee performance through learning. One of these activities is employee orientation. The purpose of employee orientation is to inform employees of policies, practices, procedures and objectives of the organization. Orientation programs vary from quite informal, to formal schedules that have employees visit various departments for a day or more. Standard orientation program may cover:
-history and general policies of the organization;
-descriptions of products or services provided by the organization
to the public;
-the organization's chain of command;
-company safety measures and regulations;
-human resources policies and practices;
-compensation, benefits, and employee services;
-daily routines and regulations;
-introduction to the corporate culture;
(3) The most fundamental employee training programs involve on-the-job training and off-the-job training. On-the-job training means that the employee immediately begins his or her tasks and learns by doing or watching others for a while, and then imitates them. right at the workplace. On - the - job training is obviously the easiest kind of training and can be effective where the job is easily learned. Off-the-job training develops a variety of skills and fosters personal development away from the workplace. It includes classroom, lectures, conferences, films, as well as workshops, tapes, reading programs, and the like. Some firms do such training internally and have elaborate training facilities. Other firms assign such training to outside sources. Some supervisors apply to the so-called "vestibule training". The term describes training in a classroom or away from the actual work area. It is done in schools where employees are taught on equipment similar to that used on the job. Such schools (oddly enough called vestibule schools) enable employees to learn proper methods and safety procedures before assuming a specific job assignment in an organization. For example, computer training is often completed in a vestibule school. One of the faster-growing aspects of training is job simulation. Job simulation is the use of equipment that duplicates job conditions and tasks so that trainees can learn skills before attempting them on the job.
(4) Training is generally associated with operating employees, while development is associated with managerial personnel. Managers need different training than most employees. They need to be good communicators and especially need to learn listening skills and empathy. They also need time management, planning, and human relations skills. Management development, then, is the process of training and educating employees to become good managers and then further develop their managerial skills. Management development programs have sprung up everywhere, especially at colleges, universities, and private management development firms. Managers participate in various role-playing exercises, solve various management cases, and are exposed to films, lectures, and all kinds of management development processes. In some organizations managers are paid to take college level courses through the doctoral level.
(5) Most management training programs include on-the-job coaching and off-the-job courses. On-the-job coaching means that a senior manager will assist a lower-level manager by teaching him or her the needed skills and generally providing direction and advice. Such programs are only effective when the senior managers are skilled themselves and have the ability to educate others. Off-the-job courses and training mean that managers periodically go to school or attend seminars for a week or more to hone their technical and human relations skills.
safety measuresмеры по технике безопасности
on-the-job training обучение без отрыва от производства
off-the-job trainingобучение с отрывом от производства
foster (v)совершенствовать, благоприятствовать
vestibule training производственное обучение
simulation (n)моделирование, имитирование.
spring up(v)возникать, появляться
hone (v) совершенствовать, оттачивать.
English handbook for the third year students of the specialty «Land use planning and Cadastres» of the secondary specialized educational establishments
Учебное пособие для студентов третьего курса специальности «Землеустройство»и «Земельный кадастр» ССУЗов
The Individual and Society | GRAMMAR:PASSIVE VOICE | Exercise 4.Open the brackets using the verbs in Present, Past, Future Simple. Translate. | Main Directions in Land Use Planning | GRAMMAR: PAST AND FUTURE PERFECT | Exercise1.Make up your own sentences with Past Perfect Tenseand Future Perfect Tense | Concepts and theory of land planning | Exercise 1. Make up your own examples with each function of the Infinitive. | Unit III | Exercise 8. Read and translate the text. |