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Text 2. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

  1. Languages. The English Language
  2. Read the text about computer languages ??and find answers to the following questions.
  3. RPG II Programming language
  4. Text 1. COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
  5. The conversion of symbolic languages

Let's assume that we have studied the problem, designed a \

logical plan (our flowchart or pseudocode), and are now ready \

to write the program instructions. The process of writing pro- j

gram instructions is called coding. The instructions will be writ-.

ten on a form called a coding form. ^ The instructions we write ¦

will be recorded in a machine-readable form using a keypunch, ;

key-to-tape, or key-to-disk, or entered directly into computer;
 memory through a terminal keyboard.

The computer can not understand instructions written in just ¦ v

any old way. The instructions must be written according to a set!

of rules. These rules are the foundation of a programming Ian- j

guage. A programming language must convey the logical steps ¦ *

of the program plan in such a way that the control unit of the \

CPU can interpret and follow the instructions. Programming j

languages ??have improved throughout the years, just as comput- I.

er hardware has improved. They have progressed from machine- \


151_______________________ Unit 11. Computer Programming

oriented languages ??that use strings of binary Is and 0s to problem-oriented languages ??that use common mathematical and / or English terms.

There are over 200 problem-oriented languages. The most common of them are COBOL, FORTRAN, PL / I, RPG, BASIC, PASCAL.

COBOL

COBOL was the most widely used business-oriented programming language. Its name is an acronym for Common Јlisi-ncss-Oriented Zanguage. COBOL was designed to solve problems that are oriented toward data handling and input-output operations. Of course, COBOL can perform arithmetic operations as well, but its greatest flexibility is in data handling. COBOL also was designed as a self-documenting language. Self-documenting languages ??are those that do not require a great deal of explanation in order to be understood by someone reading the program instructions. The self-documenting aspect of COBOL is made possible by its sentencelike structure and the very generous maximum symbolic field-name length of 30 characters. With a field-name length of up to 30 characters, the name can clearly identify the field and its purpose.



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Unit & Central Processing Unit | Text 2. THE CPU MAIN COMPONENTS | MICROPROCESSOR - A BRAIN ТО THE HARDWARE | Англійська мова. Основи комп'ютерної грамотності 122 | Проведіть граматичний аналіз тексту 1, знайдіть в ньому інфінітівние і причетні конструкції. Переве дитя пропозиції. | Переведіть безособові пропозиції. Зверніть ува ня на їх специфіку. | A MODEM | Англійська мова. Основи комп'ютерної грамотності 142 | Вставте необхідні слова замість пропусків. | Text 1. COMPUTER PROGRAMMING |

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