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MICROPROCESSOR - A BRAIN ТО THE HARDWARE

  1. HARDWARE
  2. Storage hardware

1. The microprocessor forms the heart of a microcomputer.
 The first microprocessors were developed in +1971 as a branch
 of pocket calculator development. Since then there has been a
 tremendous raise of work in this field and there appeared doz
 ens of different microprocessors. Microprocessors are used pri
 marily to replace or increase random logic design.

As it is known computer actually refers to a computing system including hardware (processor, I / O circuits, power supplies, control panel, etc.) and software (instruction manual, user's manual, assembler and diagnostic and service routines). Processor refers to the processing circuits: control processing unit, memory, interrupt unit, clock and timing. Most processors also include computer software.

Central processing unit - heart of the processor - consists of the register array, arithmetic and logical unit, control unit (including microROM), and bus control circuits. Microsoftware may also include microinstruction manual, microassembler, etc.

2. The very first microprocessors were fabricated using
 PMOS technology. "Holes" in the p-type material having a low
 mobility, those microprocessors were relatively slow devices.
 Later, improved technology permitted microprocessors to be
 constructed using n-type MOS and these microprocessors are
 almost as fast as normal minicomputers.


Ш _________________________ Unit 8. Central Processing Unit

Some microprocessors are now made using CMOS. The speed and logic density of CMOS are inferior to n-type MOS but the process does have some significant advantages. First of all, it has a low power consumption, power being consumed only when a logic element changes a state. Secondly, it can operate over a wide voltage range. As a result, electronics based on CMOS can operate successfully with "noisy5* Power supplies * The low consumption makes it quite possible to use a simple battery to maintain the security of supply for several weeks. This type of microprocessor has clear advantages over the other types.

Notes ________________________________________

MOS (Metal-oxide-semiconductor) - структура метал-оксид-напівпровідник, МОП-структура

PMOS (P-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor) - р-МОП-структура;

CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) - комплементарная МОП-структура (КМОП)


 
 


Unit 9 INPUT-OUTPUT UNITS

 1. Ознайомтеся з термінами тексту 1.

environment [m'vaisramsnt] - середовище; оточення; режим роботи;

external environment - зовнішнє середовище

human-related [ 'hju: msn n'leitid] - (взаємо) пов'язаний з

людиною human-independent - незалежний від людини

remote terminal [n'mout Че: тте1] - віддалений термінал reel of magnetic tape - бобіна з магнітною стрічкою

input-output interface - інтерфейс (сполучення, місце стиковки) введення-виведення

scan [ 'sksen] - переглядати; сканувати; розгортати

scanner [ 'sksena] - сканер; пристрій оптичного зчитування

bar-code scanner / bar-code reader - пристрій зчитування штрих-коду

regardless of [n'gardbs sv] - незважаючи на; незалежно від

to match characteristics [ 'mastfkasrskta'ristiks] - зіставляти параметри

similarly [ 'simibli] - подібно до того; також; аналогічно

to fall between - падати; потрапляти в інтервал між

card reader - пристрій зчитування плати (карти)

line printer - порядковий принтер; принтер друкування рядки

page printer - принтер з посторінковою печаткою character printer - принтер з посимвольной печаткою optical character reader - оптичне пристрій, що зчитує тексту


113_________________________ Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units

optical mark reader - оптичне пристрій, що зчитує знаків

visual display [ 'vizjual dis'plei] - візуальний індикатор

digitizer [did3i'taizs] - аналого-цифровий перетворювач; сканер

keyboard input device - клавішний пристрій введення plotter [ 'рИе] - графічний пристрій

voice recognition and response unit - пристрій розпізнавання голосу і реагування

2. Прочитайте текст і скажіть, які пристрої відносяться до сфери введення-виведення інформації.

Text 1. INPUT-OUTPUT ENVIRONMENT

Data and instructions must enter the data processing system, and information must leave it. These operations are performed by input and output (I / O) units that link the computer to its external environment.

The I / O environment may be human-related or human-independent. A remote banking terminal is an example of a human-related input environment, and a printer is an example of


Англійська мова. основи комп'ютерної грамотності 114

a device that produces output in a human-readable format. An example of a human-independent input environment is a device that measures traffic flow. A reel of magnetic tape upon which the collected data are stored in binary format is an example of a human-independent output.

Input-Output Interfaces, Data enter input units in forms that depend upon the particular device used. For example, data are entered from a keyboard in a manner similar to typing, and this differs from the way that data are entered by a bar-code scanner. However, regardless of the forms in which they receive their inputs, all input devices must provide a computer with data that are transformed into the binary codes that the primary memory of the computer is designed to accept. This transformation is accomplished by units called I / O interfaces. Input interfaces are designed to match the unique physical or electrical characteristics of input devices to the requirements of the computer system. Similarly, when output is available, output interfaces must be designed to reverse the process and to adapt the output to the external environment. These I / O interfaces are also called channels or input-output processors * (IOP).

The major differences between devices are the media that they use and the speed with which they are able to transfer data to or from primary storage.

Input-Output Device Speed. Input-output devices can be classified as high-speed, medium-speed, and low-speed. The devices are grouped according to their speed. It should be noted that the high-speed devices are entirely electronic in their operation or magnetic media that can be moved at high speed. Those highspeed devices are both input and output devices and are used as secondary storage. The low-speed devices are those with complex mechanical motion or operate at the speed of a human operator. The medium-speed devices are those that fall between - they tend to have mechanical moving parts which are more complex than the high-speed devices but not as complex as the low-speed.

High-speed devices: magnetic disk; magnetic tape.

Medium-speed devices: card readers; line printers; page printers; computer output microfilms; magnetic diskette; optical character readers; optical mark readers; visual displays.


US_________________________ Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units

Low-speed devices: bar-code readers; character printers; digitizers; keyboard input devices; plotters; voice recognition and response units.

3. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання.

1. What is the purpose of input and output devices? 2. What types of input-output devices do you know? 3. Why are data transformed into a binary code while entering the input device?

4. Give an example of a human independent output. 5. What is
 an I / O interface? 6. What are the major differences between the
 various I / O devices? 7. What types of I / O devices tend to be
 high-speed devices? 8. What types of devices tend to be low-
 speed devices?

4. Знайдіть в тексті англійські еквіваленти наступних
 словосполучень:

Серед пристроїв введення-виведення; система обробки інформації; зовнішнє середовище; пов'язаний з людиною; незалежний від людини; віддалений банківський термінал; вимірювати потік даних; бобіна з магнітною стрічкою; зберігати зібрану інформацію; двійковий формат; інтерфейс введення-виведення; вводити з клавіатури; пристрій зчитування штрих-коду; незважаючи на; перетворити в двійковий код; зіставляти параметри; подібним чином; інтерфейс виведення; змінити процес в зворотному напрямку; налаштувати пристрій вводу-виводу до зовнішнього середовища; головна відмінність; основна пам'ять; вторинна пам'ять; низькошвидкісні пристрої; відповідно.

5. Згадайте значення нових слів і спробуйте переве
 сти словосполучення, що вживаються з цими словами.

Environment: application environment; communication environment; execution environment; external environment; hardware environment; interface invironment; management environment; multimedia environment; network environment; processing environment; security environment; software environment; user environment.

Interface: channel interface; common interface; data interface; database interface; display interface; external interface; flexible interface; floppy-disk interface; general-purpose interface; hardware interface; low-level interface.


 Infinitive Active Passive Indefinite to ask to be asked Continuous to be asked ----------------- Perfect to have asked to have been asked Perfect Continuous to have been asking -----------

Англійська мова. Основи комп'ютерної грамотності 116

Scanner: bar code scanner; black-and-white scanner; color scanner; desktop scanner; hand scanner; laser scanner; manual scanner; optical scanner; visual scanner.

Terminal: batch terminal; desktop terminal; display terminal; printer terminal; remote terminal; security terminal; logical terminal; text terminal.

6. Згадайте форми інфінітива, проаналізуйте і пе
 реведіте наступні пропозиції.

Infinitive Active ______ Passive_______

Indefinite to ask _____ to be asked_____

Continuous to be asked ----- ________

______ Perfect____________ to have asked_______ to have been asked

Perfect Continuous to have been asking

1. A printer is an example of a device to produce output in a human-readable format. 2. The high-speed devices to be used as secondary storage are both input and output devices. 3. The progress of electronics to have resulted in the invention of electronic computers was a breakthrough (прорив) of the second part of the 20lh century. 4. Mendeleyev's periodic law to have been accepted as a universal law of nature is of great importance nowadays. 5. When output is available, output interfaces must be designed to reverse the process and to adopt the output to the external environment. 6. The memory stores the instructions and the data to be quickly retrieved on demand by the CPU.

7. Computers to have been designed originaly for arithmetic pur
 poses are applicable for great variety of tasks at present. 8. The
 film to have been running for over a month this year attracts at
 tention of many spectators. 9. The CPU of a computer to be
 arranged
in a single or very small number of integrated circuits
 is called a microprocessor. 10. Russia was the first country to
 start
the cosmic era.

7. Прочитайте уважно текст, складіть анотацію англійською мовою, озаглавьте текст. Для складання анотації використовуйте наступні кліше:

The text / article under review ... (gives us a sort of information about ...) The article deals with the problem ...


Ш ___________________________________ Unit ft In put-Ouput Units

The subject of the text is ...

At the beginning (of the text) the author describes... (Dwells on ...; explains...; touches upon ...; analyses ...; comments ...; characterizes ...; underlines ...; reveals ...; gives account of ...)

The article begins with the description of .. ,, a review of ..., the analysis of ... The article opens with ...

Then (after that, further on, next) the author passes on to ..., gives a detailed (thorough) analysis (description), goes on to say that ...

To finish with, the author describes ... At the end of the article the author draws the conclusion that ...; the author sums it all up (by saying ...) In conclusion the author ...

* * *

As it is well known, a computer can not perform or complete any useful work unless it is able to communicate with its external environment. All data and instructions enter and leave the central processing unit through primary storage. Input-output devices are needed to link primary storage to the environment, which is external to the computer system. So input devices are used to enter data into primary storage. Output units accept data from primary storage to provide users with information or to record the data on a secondary storage device. Some devices are used for both the input and output functions.

The data with which these devices work may or may not be in a form that humans can understand. For example the data that a data entry operator keys into the memory of a computer by typing on a keyboard are readable by humans. However, the data that tell a computer about the performance of an automobile engine are not in a form that humans can read. They are electrical signals from an analog sensor. Similarly, output may be on a printed page, which humans can read easily, or upon some other medium where the data are not visible, such as on magnetic tape or disk.

As we know, all of the data flow from input to final output is managed by the control unit in the CPU. Regardless of the nature of the I / O devices, special processors called I / O interfaces


Англійська мова. Основи комп'ютерної грамотності 118

 are required to convert the input data to the internal codes used by the computer and to convert internal codes to a format which is usable by the output device.

8. Ознайомтеся з термінами тексту 2.

keyboard [ 'ki: bo: d] - клавіатура

key [ki:] - клавіша; кнопка; перемикач; ключовий, основний; головний; перемикати; набирати на клавіатурі

manipulator Imsmpju'leits] - маніпулятор; блок обробки

trackball [ 'traekbo :!] - трекбол

touch panel [ 'tAt /' paenl] - сенсорна панель

graphic plotting tables [ 'grsefik' pbtirj 'teibls] - графічні планшети

sound card [ 'saund' ka:] - звукова карта (плата)

enable [i'neibl] - вирішувати; дозволяти; допускати; робити можливим

operating mode [ops'rertin 'moud] - режим роботи press a button - натиснути на кнопку keep buttons depressed - утримувати кнопки в натиснутому стані

double-click [ 'dLvbl' klikl - подвійне натискання

erase images [i'reiz 'imid3iz] - видалити, стерти зображення (об'єкт)

roller [ 'rob] - ролик; валик

track - стежити; простежувати; переходиш слід; траєкторія; шлях; доріжка; з'єднання

by means of - за допомогою

permitting capacity - роздільна здатність

9. Прочитайте текст і назвіть прилади, які служать для
 введення інформації в комп'ютер. Переведіть текст.

Text 2. INPUT DEVICES

There are several devices used for inputting information into the computer: a keyboard, some coordinate input devices, such


119 Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units

 as manipulators (a mouse, a track ball), touch panels and graphical plotting tables, scanners, digital cameras, TV tuners, sound cards etc.

When personal computers first became popular, the most common device used to transfer information from the user to the computer was the keyboard. It enables inputting numerical and text data. A standard keyboard has 104 keys and three more ones informing about the operating mode of light indicators in the upper right corner.

Later when the more advanced graphics became to develop, user found that a keyboard did not provide the design capabilities of graphics and text representation on the display. There appeared manipulators, a mouse and a track ball, that are usually used while operating with graphical interface. Each software program uses these buttons differently.

The mouse is an optic-mechanical input device. The mouse has three or two buttons which control the cursor movement across the screen. The mouse provides the cursor control thus simplifying user's orientation on the display. The mouse's primary functions are to help the user draw, point and select images on his computer display by moving the mouse across the screen.

In general software programs require to press one or more buttons, sometimes keeping them depressed or double-click them to issue changes in commands and to draw or to erase emages. When you move the mouse across a flat surface, the ball located on the bottom side of the mouse turns two rollers. One is tracking the mouse's vertical movements, the other is tracking horizontal movements. The rotating ball glides easily, giving the user good control over the textual and graphical images.

In portable computers touch panels or touch pads are used instead of manipulators. Moving a finger along the surface of the touch pad is transformed into the cursor movement across the screen.

Graphical plotting tables (plotters) find application in drawing and inputtig manuscript texts. You can draw, add notes and signs to electronic documents by means of a special pen. The quality of graphical plotting tables is characterized by permitting capacity, that is the number of lines per inch, and their capability to respond to the force of pen pressing.


Англійська мова. Основи комп'ютерної грамотності 120

Scanner is used for optical inputting of images (photographies, pictures, slides) and texts and converting them into the computer form.

Digital videocameras have been spread recently. They enable getting videoimages and photographs directly in digital computer format. Digital cameras give possibility to get high quality photos.

Sound cards produce sound conversion from analog to digital form. They are able to synthesize sounds. Special game-ports and joysticks are widely used in computer games.

10. Дайте відповідь на питання, використовуючи інформацію тексту.

1. What devices are used for inputting information into the computer? 2. What was the most common device in early personal computers? 3. What is the function of a keyboard? 4. Why do many users prefer manipulators to keyboard? 5. How does the mouse operate? 6. What is its function? 7. What role does the ball on the bottom of the mouse play? 8. What is used in portable computers instead of manipulators? 9. What is the touch pad's principle of operation? 10. Where do graphical plotting tables find application?

11. Знайдіть у тексті англійські еквіваленти наступних
 словосполучень:

Введення інформації; координатні пристрої вводу; маніпулятори; миша; трекбол; сенсорна панель; графічні планшети; цифрові камери; сканери; ТВ тюнери; стандартна клавіатура; числова і текстова інформація; світлові індикатори; клавіші; режим роботи; презентація тексту на моніторі; графічний інтерфейс; програмні засоби; оптико-механічне "пристрій введення; управляти рухом курсора; спрощувати орієнтацію користувача на екрані; вказувати і вибирати зображення; утримувати кнопки в натиснутому стані; подвійне натискання; прати об'єкти; рівна поверхня; обертати ролики; стежити за вертикальним рухом; легко ковзати; портативний комп'ютер ; рукописний текст; за допомогою; роздільна здатність


121 Unit 9. Input-Ouput Units

 12. Згадайте значення нових дієслів та переведіть сло
 ва, похідні від них.

Те accomplish: accomplished; unaccomplished; accomplishment.

To adapt, adaptable; unadaptable; adaptability; unadaptabil-ity; adaptation; adapter.

To digitize: digit; digital; digitization; digitizer.

To erase: erasable; erasability; eraser; erasing; erasure.

To match: matcher; matching.

To permit: permitted; permissible; permissibility; permission.

To print: printable; printed; printer; printing;

To scan: scanning; scanner.

To recognize: recognition; recognizer; recognizable; unrecognizable.

To respond: response; responsible; irresponsible; responsibility; irresponsibility.

To reverse: reversed; reversible; irreversible; reversion; reversibility.

To transform: transformer; transformation; transformational; transformative

13. Проаналізуйте пропозиції, що містять конструк
 ції "for + Infinitive" і "Objective with the Infinitive".
 Переведіть пропозиції на російську мову.

1. It was not difficult for the pupils to understand the function of the mouse in computer operation. 2. There is no reason for computer experts to use computers of the first generation nowadays. 3. The mechanism is provided with special devices / or the whole system to function automatically. 4. The text was very interesting but rather difficult for the students to translate it without a dictionary. 5. It is not easy for me to learn to speak English fluently. 6. We know the machine to react to a series of electrical impulses that can be represented in binary numbers. 7. Scientists considered silicon to be one of the best materials for the creation of an 1С. 8. Wfe know all data to be translated into binary code before being stored in main storage. 9. Engineers expect these new devices to be tested very soon. 10. They want their son to become a computer operator and to design new computer models.




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STEPS IN THE DEVELOPING OF COMPUTERS | Узгодьте слова в лівій колонці з їх інтерпретацією, запропонованої справа. | Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview | Прочитайте текст 2 і скажіть, яку додаткову інформацію ви дізналися про дію основних пристроїв комп'ютера. | Згадайте значення нових слів і спробуйте переве сти словосполучення, що вживаються з цими словами. | Ознайомтеся з термінами тексту 2. | DIGITAL COMPUTER OPERATION | TESTS 1. Вставте замість пропусків необхідні слова. | Англійська мова. Основи комп'ютерної грамотності 102 | Unit & Central Processing Unit |

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