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  1. Basic data processing operations
  2. Bringing the Digital Divide
  3. Computer Graphics
  4. Computer parts and essentials.
  6. Cooperation with the Customs
  7. Customs Co-operation and Mutual Administrative Assistance Agreements

1. A digital computer is a machine capable of performing operations on data represented in digital or number form. The individual operations performed by a digital computer are very simple arithmetic or logical processes involving the manipulation of the bits in words or characters of information. The great power of any digital computer rests in the ability to store large volumes of data and to perform these operations at extremely high speed.

In most electronic digital computers the method of number representation is based on the system of binary notation. The binary notation system is most widely used because of the convenience in constructing logical circuits and storage devices capable of handling data in this form. For example, a magnetic memory unit consists of many thousand individual magnetic cells, each of which can be energized in either of two ways to represent the binary digits 0 or 1. If these cells are grouped to form words or binary coded characters, information can be

Англійська мова. Основи комп'ютерної грамотності 94

 stored for processing in units of specified size. In the same way, digital data can be recorded as a series of magnetized spots on a magnetic tape or a magnetic disk.

2. The computer has pervaded most fields of human activity and is the most important innovation of our age. Born out of the technology of communication, it is capable of handling enormous amounts of information at tremendous speeds. What makes it so potent is the fact that a single mechanism can perform any information-processing task. The same mechanism can control industrial processes, guide space vehicles or help to teach children. This diversity of tasks is made possible by the simple idea of ??the stored program.

A program is the enumeration of determining commands. It specifies the method used for the solution of a problem in detail. When the machine is. in operation, both the commands and the numbers to be processed are constantly being taken out of and put into a depository of information known as a memory.

It can be seen that the processes performed by a digital computer are essentially simple. These operations can be performed at extremely high speeds and with a high degree of coordination between the different functional units of the hardware system, and this ability means that digital computers can undertake highly complex tasks.

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It is interesting to note that memory, one of the basic components of the computer, is often called storage. It stores calculation program, the calculation formulae, initial data, intermediate and final results. Therefore, the functions of the computer memory may be classified in the following way. Firstly, the computer memory must store the information transmitted from the input and other devices. Secondly, memory should produce the information needed for the computation process to all other devices of the computer.

95 Unit 7. Storage

 Generally, memory consists of two main parts called the main, primary or internal, memory and the secondary, or external memory. The advantage of the primary memory is an extremely high speed. The secondary memory has a comparatively low speed, but it is capable of storing far greater amount of information than the main memory. The primary storage takes a direct part in the computational process. The secondary storage provides the information necessary for a single step in the sequence of computation steps.

The most important performance characteristics of a storage unit are speed, capacity and reliability. Its speed is measured in cycle time. Its capacity is measured by the number of machine words or binary digits. Its reliability is measured by the number of failures (відмова) per unit of time.

План в питальній формі.

1. What is memory?

2. What is the function of memory?

3. What are the main parts of memory?

4. What are advantages and disadvantages of a storage unit?

5. What are their functions?

6. What are performance characteristics of the main and
 secondary memory?

7. What units are performance characteristics measured by?

План в називной формі

1. The definition of memory.

2. The main functions of memoiy.

3. Classification of memory.

4. Advantages and disadvantages of memory components.

5. The functions of memory components.

6. Performance characteristics of memory.

7. The units for measuring the performance characteristics
 of memory.

План в тезисной формі.

1. Memory is one of the basic components of the comput

2. Memory stores initial data, intermediate and final results.

3. It produces the information needed to other devices of
 the computer.

Англійська мова. Основи комп'ютерної грамотності 96

4.  Memory consists of the main (internal) and the second
 ary (external) storage.

5. The main memory has high speed, but small capacity; the
 secondary memory possesses lower speed but greater ca

6. The main memory performs computation; the secondary
 memory provides information sequentially, step by step.

7. The performance characteristics - speed, capacity and
 reliability - are measured by cycles, binary digits and the
 number of failures per unit of time.

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Згадайте значення нових слів і здогадайтеся про зна чення їх похідних. | Стаття (текст) присвячена проблемі / питання ... На початку статті | Types of computers | Переведіть пропозиції, що містять Participle I і Participle II, в функції обставини. | Згадайте значення нових слів і спробуйте пере вести словосполучення, що вживаються з цими словами. | STEPS IN THE DEVELOPING OF COMPUTERS | Узгодьте слова в лівій колонці з їх інтерпретацією, запропонованої справа. | Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview | Прочитайте текст 2 і скажіть, яку додаткову інформацію ви дізналися про дію основних пристроїв комп'ютера. | Згадайте значення нових слів і спробуйте переве сти словосполучення, що вживаються з цими словами. |

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