The falling and Rising tones belong to so-called "simple tones", in which the pitch changes in one direction (upwards or downwards).
The most commonly used are Falling tones, which can be divided, according to the pitch level from which the voice begins falling into:
a) high (Vassiliyev, Antipova),
b) mid (Antipova),
c) low. (Vasiliev, Antipova).
The High Fall - the voice starts falling from the high pitch level or a little below to the bottom of the voice range.
The Mid Fall - the voice starts from the medium pitch level and falls to the bottom of the voice range.
The Low Fall - the voice starts from the low pitch level and falls to the very low pitch level.
The falling tones express the meanings of finality, definiteness, assurance.
The rising tones can also be classified, according to the pitch level from which the voice begins to rise into:
2. high narrow,
3. high wide.
Low rise - the voice starts low and rises to a medium pitch a little below it.
High Narrow Rise - the voice starts at a medium pitch or above it and rises to a high one.
High Wide Rise - the voice starts at a low pitch and rises at a high one.
The Rising Tones express the meaning on non-finality, implication, interest and also sounds non-categorical. Rising and falling tones can be combined with different types of heads, which, in their turn add some other modal meanings and colorings to a sentence.
REVISION AND PRACTICE.
FUNCTIONS OF INTONATION.
1.Take a deep diaphragmatic breath on the count of 6. On the next count of 6hold it, and on the next count of 6 release the air.
2. Take a deep diaphragmatic breath on the count of 6. Release the air on the count of 5. Take another deep breath on the count of 6 and release the air on the count of 4 proceed in the same way counting down to 1. At the count of one release the air with the sound "ha".
3. Articulate the following tongue twister: "Thirty three thick thistle sticks". The vocal cords are not working. Try to articulate the sounds a bit stronger than you usually do.
4. Now whisper the tongue twister from the activity 3, and then say it aloud.
5. Take a deep and quick diaphragmatic breath on the count of 1. Release the air on the count of 6. Take another deep breath on the count of 2 and release the air on the count of 6 proceed in the same way counting up to 6.
6. Take a deep diaphragmatic breath and count aloud from 1 to 6. Try to use all air you have in your lungs. Make sure that your vocal cords are relaxed. Check on it by putting your hand on your throat - the neck muscles should not be tensed.
7. Take a deep diaphragmatic breath and say the following "One by one they went away". If you have some air left let it out freely. Make sure that your vocal cords are relaxed. Proceed in the same way adding one unit to the sentence "One by one and two by two they went away", and so on up to "six by six..."
8. Do the same as in 7 but starting with the lowest voice you can make and picking its pitch up on each number. The last number should be said on the highest pitch of your voice. Try not to go beyond your natural voice.
9. Do the same as in 7 but starting from the highest pitch and going down to the lowest.
10. Do the same as in 7 but starting with whisper and increasing the volume to a very loud voice, and back from loud to whisper.
11. Say the tongue twister from the activity 3 five times each time increasing the volume of your voice on every other word.
12.Take a deep diaphragmatic breath and read the following poem. Start by taking a breath after each line. Increase the number of lines read at one breath until you read the whole poem at one breath. Try to control the output of the air and make sure that your vocal cords are relaxed.
Merry little snowflakes,
Dancing through the street,
Flying in our faces,
Falling at our feet.
Joyous, little snowflakes,
Winter's wild, white bees,
Covering all the flowers,
Dusting all the trees.
Merry little snowflakes,
Dancing through the street,
Flying in our faces,
Falling at our feet.
VOWEL SOUNDS [ ] - [ ]
Practise the following pairs of words:
food - foot
shoot - shook
rule - room
tooth - took
wounded - woodland
shooter - sugar
bootless - bullet
bugler - butcher
Practise the following proverbs:
Exception proves the rule.
Too good to be true.
No news is good news.
º "DARK" /l/ AND "CLEAR" /l/
Listen to these phrases. Write 1 next to the first phrase you hear and 2 next to the second phrase.
a man who's bored a man who's bald
some children rowing some children rolling
someone being towed off someone being told off
Listen again, paying attention to the /l/ sound. Does it sound the same as in Ukrainian?
èThe letter l has two pronunciations in English. When there is a vowel sound after it, it is a 'clear' /l/:
When it is at the end of the word, or there is a consonant sound after it, it is a 'dark' /l/:
peel /pi:l/ peeled /pi:ld/
Listen to the three words above. Can you hear the difference between 'clear' /l/ and 'dark' /l/? Practise saying the words.
The sounds in the pair of words below are "back to front". Look: [li:p] leap [pi:l] peel.
Write a word from the box next to each word below to make similar pairs.
|Pill tile kill tell Feel kneel sell till|
a leaf ______________________
º CONSONANT CLUSTERS PRACTICE [pl] [bl] [pr] [br]
A Please go, Brian.
BI bring you a beautiful present, and you tell me to go!
A Brian, I appreciate the present, but...
BWould you prefer a black one?
ABrown suits me perfectly, but...
BOr a blue one?
ABut if your brother finds you here....
BMy brother? But surely Brett's gone to...
AProbably that's him now.
AOh. Perhaps it's only the bread man.
ANo.No. it's Brett. Brett, darling...
BBrett, you probably won't believe this, but, er...
|REVISION AND PRACTICE|
º 1.1 First listen to this conversation between John and Lisa and then answer the questions.
a) What has Samantha told Lisa on the phone?
b) What is the special significance of red roses?
c) What are the two different meanings John and Lisa give to "poor guy"?
1.2 In the conversation some phrases are repeated but they sound different because the speakers have chosen to highlight different words.
Listen to the first part of the conversation again as many times as you need to.
a) Identify any phrases which you hear repeated. In the transcript which follows, mark boxes round the words, which you think the speaker has highlighted. Work with "Uniton". The diagrams will help you to identify the highlighted words by a raised pitch level and an increased intensity.
b) Look at the contexts of the phrases carefully and try to explain why the highlighting has changed.
Lisa: That was Samantha on the phone. Honestly, I don't know how she does it.
John: Ah... Samantha. What's she done now?
Lisa: Nothing really. That's what amazing. But somebody has sent her a dozen roses.
John: A dozen what?
Lisa: A dozen roses.
John: Roses... Mmm, I say... and at this time of year...
Lisa: Yes. And a dozen roses. He must be keen.
John: Is it her birthday or something?
Lisa: No, and what's more they were red roses.
John: Now... a dozen red roses. You know that means.
1.3 Now listen to the second part of the conversation and do the same again.
Lisa: Yes. I know what you're going to say.
John: It means he's not just keen. He's in love with her.
Lisa: I know. I know. Poor guy...
John: Poor guy? What do you mean? It doesn't sound very poor to me if he can afford a dozen...
Lisa: No, I mean I feel sorry for him. He's in love with her - yes. But she's not in love with him.
John: How do you know? Did she say so?
Lisa: She doesn't even know who it is - and she says she doesn't really mind. She always...
|2. PRACTICE ACTIVITY|
Listen to the following utterances which you will hear twice. Decide which of the questions, (a) or (b), provides a suitable context for what you hear.
// When we've FInished LUNCH // we'll look at the PHOTos //
a) When can we see the photos?
b) What shall we do after lunch?
// Your use of intoNATION // can change the MEANing //
a) What can change the meaning of what you say?
b) Why is intonation important?
// The hoTEL // was very GOOD //
a) Did you enjoy your holiday?
b) What was the accommodation like?
// They can GO // if you've FINished //
a) What shall we do now we've finished?
b) Can we go?
Now try to say each of the utterances so that it is a suitable response to the other question.
3.1 First listen to the whole of this conversation between Lisa and Tony. You heard the first part in Unit 3.
1. What is Tony worrying about?
2. Do you think that Lisa feels he really needs to be worried?
3.2 Now working with a partner if possible, listen to the second part again.
a) Try to identify any and tones which are not marked in the transcript below.
b) Work with "Uniton". Check whether you identified the tones correctly.
c) Try to explain why Tony and Lisa have chosen to use a or a tone where you have marked them.
Tony: // I MEAN // I MANaged to answer all the QUESTions // and I THINK I said the right THINGs // but I DON'T think // I wore the right CLOTHES //
Lisa: // WELL// there's NO point in WORRying about it // what's DONE // is DONE //
Tony: // YES Lisa // I KNOW // There's NOthing I can DO about it // if COURSE // I CAN'T CHANGE anything // but I CAN'T help THINKing about it //
3.3 Now listen to the third part and do the same again.
Lisa: // I'm SURE // you needn't WORRY // what DID you wear // ANyway //
Tony: // I HAD to put my JEANS on //
Lisa: // Your JEANS // Oh I SEE //
Tony: // But I wore a TIE //
Lisa: // NEVer MIND // you SAID the right things // ANyway //
º Work with a partner and think about which words you will highlight and where you will use and tones. Use a tone as you practiced in Unit 3.
1) to refer to something that has just been stated,
2) to check that that something as you assume,
3) when you make a general statement which avoids answering a question.
Cathy: Hello, Bob.
Bob: Hi. You 're looking well.
Cathy: Thanks. And so are you. You got back safely then?
Bob: Yes. We arrived this morning.
Cathy: This morning? I thought you were due back a couple of days ago?
Bob: Mmm, that had been the plan.
Cathy: Well, what's happened?
Bob: You've heard about the rail strike?
Cathy: 0h, yes, of course. But had forgotten you were traveling by train. How did you manage?
Bob: Well, you see, we came by coach. It took a lot longer but we got back OK.
Cathy: So I see. You don't sound as though you minded.
Bob: No. We didn't mind at all. It took a lot longer, but it was very comfortable - and it was much cheaper. In fact, we've decided to go by coach next time.
You can hear the recorded conversation, but, remember, this is only one possible version, yours may sound different.
Practise reading the dialogue in activity 4. Record your conversation on the tape. Work with "Uniton". Analyze the diagrams of your speech, see whether you managed to use the proper tones in proper situations.
INTONATION AND ITS COMPONENTS. | HIGHLIGHTING. RHYTHM | INTONATION AND ITS COMPONENTS | TELLING AND REFERRING | The Tones | The transcription | B: // SORRy // (homework)// THURSday | SPEECH MELODY. ITS COMPONENTS | TYPES OF TONES (2). TYPES OF HEADS. | Lisa: Hello, Tony. Did you go for your interview yesterday? |