Student A, Student B.
1. Working with your partner think of all the things you both do together, e. g. school lessons, evening classes, etc. & write them in your diaries for next week.
2. Now, working individually, write down in your diary the appointments you have next week or activities that your partner doesn't know about.
3. Try to arrange to meet:
a) for coffee; b) to see a film together.
TASKS: 1. Prepare a conversation. Try to make arrangements by asking questions,
e. g. A.: Can we meet for a cup of coffee on Monday?
B.: Oh, sorry. I'm going swimming on Monday.
2. Record your conversation on the tape.
3. Work with "Uniton". Analyse the diagrams of your speech. See whether you managed to make suitable responses in different contexts.
(the fall - "telling" smb. smth., the fall-rise - "referring" to smth.)
º Listen and read
Hughie Erskine is a charming and attractive young man. Unfortunately, however, he has not been very successful in business and therefore never has any money.
1. Listen to and read this extract from The Modern Millionaire by Oscar Wilde.
2. Are these sentences T (true) or F (false)?
1 Trevor likes people who aren't very intelligent because it is easy to have a conversation with them._____
2. Hughie doesn't need an invitation to come and visit Trevor.__________
3. The portrait of the beggar was quite small. __________
4. Trevor saw Hughie give the beggar some money.________
5. Hughie felt embarrassed about his moment of generosity._____________
One morning, Hughie called in to see a great friend of his, Alan Trevor. Trevor was a painter. He had been much attracted by Hughie at first, it must be admitted, just because of his personal charm. 'The only people a painter should know,' he used to say, 'are-people who are both beautiful and stupid, people who are a pleasure to look at and restful to talk to.' But after he got to know Hughie better, he liked him quite as much for his bright, cheerful spirits, and his generous, carefree nature, and had asked him to visit whenever he liked.
When Hughie came in, he found Trevor putting the finishing touches to a wonderful life-size picture of a beggar. The beggar himself was standing on a raised platform in a corner of the room. He was a tired old man with a lined face and a sad expression. Over his shoulder was thrown a rough brown coat, all torn and full of holes; his thick boots were old and mended, and with one hand he leant on a rough stick, while with the other he held out his old hat for money.
'What an astonishing model!' whispered Hughie, as he shook hands with his friend.
'An astonishing model?' shouted Trevor at the top of his voice;'I should think so! Such beggars are not met with every day. Good heavens!'
'Poor old man!' said Hughie. 'How miserable he looks! But 1 suppose, to you painters, his face is his fortune.'
'Certainly,' replied Trevor, 'you don't want a beggar to look happy, do you?'
After some time the servant came in, and told Trevor that the frame maker wanted to speak to him.
The old beggar took advantage of Trevor's absence to rest for a moment. He looked so miserable that Hughie pitied him, and felt in his pockets to see what money he had. All he could find was a pound and some pennies. 'Poor old man!' he thought, 'he needs it more than I do, but I shan't have much money myself for a week or two'; and he walked across the room and slipped the pound into the beggar's hand.
The old man jumped, and a faint smile passed across his old lips. Thank you, sir,' he said, 'thank you.'
Then Trevor arrived, and Hughie left, a little red in the face at what he had done.
Listen to the text and analyse it from the phonetic point of view:
1. Divide the text into intonation groups, determine their structure in each case.
2. Watch the Nucleus in each of them and the tone used.
3. Analyse the head in each intonation group: type, number of rhythm groups.
Practise its reading. Make the recording of your reading on a tape.
Work with "Uniton". Compare the diagrams of your reading with the model one.
TYPES OF HEADS
The Head of the intonation group stretches from the first fully stressed syllable (including it) and expends up to the Nucleus.
Descriptions and classifications of Heads are based on 3 major criteria:
1. According to the general contour of pitch movement over the Head, the Heads may be:
2. According to the pitch movement within each stress-group (rhythm group), Heads may be:
3. According to the distribution of relative prominence among the semantic items in the prenuclear part of an intonation group? which is ultimately reflected in the number of full and partial stresses in the Head, we differentiate the following types of Heads:
Thus the general classification of the types of heads can be presented as follows:
a) descending stepping,
b) descending sliding,
c) descending scandent,
d) ascending stepping,
e) ascending sliding,
f) ascending scandent,
g) level (high, mid, low) stepping,
i) level scandent.
Descending Stepping Head is formed by a series of stressed and unstressed syllables in which pitch descends in "steps", so to speak, i.e. pitch movement within each stressed syllable is level, and the following stressed syllable is pitched a little lower, while the unstressed syllables are pronounced on the same pitch as the preceding stressed syllables. This head is the commonest one used with all the English tones.
☼ How was the yesterday's film?
Descending Sliding Head is formed by a descending series of stressed syllables pronounced with downward slides, so that each slide begins a little higher than the end of the preceding one. If there are any unstressed syllables between the stressed ones each is pitched a little lower than the preceding syllable; the stressed syllables may then be said on a level pitch:
☼ If you don't trust my driving?
Descending Scandent Head is formed by a descending series of stressed syllables pronounced with pitch rises within stressed syllables while each of the unstressed ones is pitched a little higher than the preceding one:
☼ The train really does leave at five.
Ascending Stepping Head is formed by an ascending series of syllables in which each stressed syllable is pitched a little higher than the preceding one. The unstressed syllables between them rise gradually. The ascending Stepping Head is often used to show surprise, interest, and protest.
☼ But it didn't hurt me at all.
Ascending Sliding Head is formed by an ascending series of syllables in which each stressed syllable is pronounced with a slide, while each of the unstressed syllables is pitched a little lower than the end of the preceding syllable.
☼ He used a false name to get the job.
Ascending Scandent Head is formed by an ascending series of syllables in which each stressed syllable is pronounced with a rise, while each of the unstressed syllables is pitched a little higher than the end of the preceding syllable.
☼ He's got a nerve asking us for money!
Level Head is formed by a series of stressed and unstressed syllables pronounced on the same pitch level.
☼ I'll see you the day after tomorrow.
Besides in English one can observe the high frequency of heterogenious heads, i.e. heads combining in themselves features of two (or three) different types.
This game is played in all the countries of the world
INTONATION AND ITS COMPONENTS. | HIGHLIGHTING. RHYTHM | INTONATION AND ITS COMPONENTS | TELLING AND REFERRING | The Tones | The transcription | B: // SORRy // (homework)// THURSday | SPEECH MELODY. ITS COMPONENTS | TYPES OF TONES (2). TYPES OF HEADS. | Listen and read |