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TYPES OF TONES (2). TYPES OF HEADS.

  1. B. Match the types of securities below with their definitions.
  2. Criminal Law in the USA. Types of Crime
  3. Exercise 2. Put four questions of different types to each sentence (general, special, alternative, disjunctive).
  4. Exercise 2. Put up four questions of different types (general, special, disjunctive, alternative) to each sentence.
  5. Exercise 4. Read text F Types of Portable Fire Extinguishers
  6. Exercise 5. Correlate extinguishing agents (A) with types of extinguishers (C) using one of the synonymous verbal forms (B).
  7. Exercise 5. Put all types of questions to the sentences.
WARM UP

1. Take a deep diaphragmatic breath on the count of 7. On the next count of 7 hold it, and on the next count of 7 release the air.

2. Take a deep diaphragmatic breath on the count of 7. Release the air on the count of 6. Take another deep breath on the count of 7 and release the air on the count of 5 proceed in the same way counting down to 1. At the count of one release the air with the sound "ha".

3. Take a deep diaphragmatic breath on the count of 7. Release the air on the count of 7. Take another deep breath on the count of 6 and release the air on the count of 7 proceed in the same way counting down to 1. At the count of one take the air as quickly as you can.

4. Take a deep diaphragmatic breath and count aloud from 1 to 7. Try to use all air you have in your lungs. Make sure that your vocal cords are relaxed. Check on it by putting your hand on your throat - the neck muscles should not be tensed. Proceed in the same way now counting to 8 and then to 9.

5. Take a deep diaphragmatic breath and say the following "One by one they went away". If you have some air left let it out freely. Make sure that your vocal cords are relaxed. Proceed in the same way adding one unit to the sentence "One by one and two by two they went away", and so on up to "seven by seven..."

6. Do the same as in 5 but starting with the lowest voice you can make and picking its range on each number. The last number should be said on the highest peach of your voice. Try not to go beyond your natural voice.

7. Do the same as in 5 but starting from the lowest pitch and going to the highest.

8. Take a deep diaphragmatic breath and read the following poem. Start by taking a breath after each line. Increase the number of lines read at one breath until you read the whole poem at one breath. Try to control the output of the air and make sure that your vocal cords are relaxed.

The flowery spring leads sunny summer,

And yellow autumn presses near,

Then in the turn comes gloomy winter,

Till smiling spring again appear.

Thus seasons dancing , life advancing,

Old Time and Nature their changes tell;

But never ranging, still unchanging

I adore my bonnie Bell.

from Bonnie Bell by Robert Burns

SOUND PRACTICE

SOUNDS

VOWEL SOUNDS [ ] - [ ]

Practise the following pairs of words:


all - on

port - pot

course - cost

warm - wash

form - fond

awful - office

daughter - doctor

morning - modern

order - oddly

forward - follow

organism - origin

ornament - omnibus

orchestra - optimist

northerner - follower

ordinate - oddity


Practise the following proverbs:

Honesty is the best policy.

Better unborn than untaught.

A little pot is soon hot.

º THE SOUND /r/ IN BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

1 Below are ten adjectives that describe personal characteristics. Can you remember what they all mean?

Listen to each word in both British and American accents. Mark them with a tick if r is pronounced and a cross if it is not.

British American

a hardworking hardworking

reliable practical sincere organized proud relaxed careless popular

b reliable

c practical

d sincere

e organized

f proud

g relaxed

h careless

i popular

 

2 Circle the correct rules.

èWhen r comes before a vowel sound, it: is/is not pronounced in British English.

is/is not pronounced in American English.

è When r comes after a vowel sound, it: is/is not pronounced in British English.

is/is not pronounced in American English.

Practise saying the adjectives in 1. You can say them in either the British or American way, but make sure that you pronounce /r/ correctly.

3 How do you think these adjectives are pronounced in British English?


self- centred

extrovert

particular

warm-hearted

cheerful

short-tempered

superior

good-natured


Listen to see if you guessed correctly.

4 The r at the end of a word or syllable is also sometimes pronounced in British English.

Listen to these adjectives and say when the r in over- is pronounced and when it is not.


over-modest

over-excited

over-careful

over-qualified

over-confident

over-educated

overpaid

over-ambitious


Listen again and practise saying the adjectives.

5 What is the special meaning of over- in these words?With a partner, invent a sentence for each word.

6Listen to the dialogue between Matthew and Laura. Mark the linking r sounds.

Laura Matthew! Are you going anywhere over Easter this year?

MatthewWell, yes, as a matter of fact, we are. We're off on a tour of Italy for a week or two.

Laura Mmm. That sounds great! Where exactly will you be going?

Matthew Oh, here and there. Rome's more or less definite, but we're open to suggestions.

LauraAre you travelling by coach?

Matthew No, by car actually.

Laura When you're in Rome, you must throw a coin over your shoulder into the Trevi fountain.

Matthew Really? What for?

Laura It means, sooner or later, you're sure to return.

Practise the dialogue with a partner, paying attention to the r sounds.

º CONSONANT CLUSTERS PRACTICE [fr] [fl]

A Flatter me, Fred.

B Flatter you, Florrie?

A Frank flatters me, Fred.

B Frank flatters everybody.

A He says I create a flame in his heart!

B A flame in his heart?

A A furious flame! He says I drive him frantic!

B You drive me frantic too, Florrie.

A Oh, Fred! You old flatterer!

B Fry the fish, Florrie.

MORE TELLING AND REFERRING

º We looked at the two main tones in English: the fall ( ) and the fall-rise ( ). In this module we concentrate on these same tones and practice using them in longer pieces of conversation.

1. SENSITISATION

1.1.Listen to this part of conversation.



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INTONATION AND ITS COMPONENTS. | HIGHLIGHTING. RHYTHM | INTONATION AND ITS COMPONENTS | TELLING AND REFERRING | The Tones | The transcription | B: // SORRy // (homework)// THURSday | Student A, Student B. | FALLING AND RISING TONES | Listen and read |

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