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Вживання Past Perfect.

  1. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the word in brackets. Use will, going to, Present Simple and Present Perfect. There are may be two possibilities.
  2. Ex.1. Read and translate the sentences. Write out the verbs in the Present Perfect.
  3. Ex.21. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Perfect.
  4. I. Зловживання свободою асоціацій
  5. VI.8. ВЖИВАННЯ ФОРМ РОСІЙСЬКОГО ГЛАГОЛА
  6. Зловживання посадовими повноваженнями (ст. 285 КК РФ)
  7. Зловживання посадовими повноваженнями (ст. 285 КК РФ). Перевищення посадових повноважень (ст. 286 КК РФ)

Past Perfect вживається:

1. Для вираження дії, що сталася раніше іншої дії в минулому або завершилося до певного моменту в минулому (By 6 o'clock, by that time, by the 1st of September):

We had a fantastic holiday, but we had earned it.

Susan bought the house where her grandparents had once lived.

By 6 o'clock he had finished his work.

By the 20th of June we had passed all the exams.

У негативній формі Past Perfect може виражати дію, яке ще не закінчилося до певного моменту в минулому.

I had not gone a hundred yards from the corner when I noticed there was a car

behind us (Не пройшов я і ста ярдів, як ......).

2. У поєднанні з Past Continuous, коли одне з двох минулих дій знаходиться в процесі здійснення, а інше завершилося до початку першого.

Joe had come down into the hall and was waiting for his friend.

The wind had stopped, but it was still raining.

3. У підрядних реченнях часу, що вводяться спілками after, when и before може вживатися як Past Perfect, так і Past Simple. Past Simple використовується в тих випадках, коли дії відбуваються послідовно, одне за іншим. Past Perfect вживається тоді, коли говорить підкреслює завершеність дії (Тільки після того, як).

She saw him every day after we arrived in New York.

He knew the poem by heart after he had heard it several times.

після союзу when в підрядному реченні зазвичай вживається Past Simple. Past Perfect використовується в тих випадках, коли when наближається за змістом до after (після того як).

When he finished speaking, everyone clapped.

When they had gone I decided to look through my papers again.

У складнопідрядні речення, в якому підрядне вводиться союзом before(Перш, ніж; до того, як), Past Perfect вживається в головному реченні, якщо необхідно підкреслити, що дія головного речення передувало дії придаткового. У тих випадках, коли такої необхідності немає, в обох пропозиціях вживається Past Simple.

I had asked three times for the money before he paid me.

He decided to buy a present for his daughter before he left.

Іноді Past Perfect вживається після союзу before в підрядному реченні. У таких пропозиціях дієслово передає незавершене дію, а союз before перекладається на російську мову за допомогою сполучень ще до того як (він встиг), ще перш ніж, і т.п.

I knew the truth before I had been in the house for an hour.

He began apologizing before I had paid the driver.

4. У головному реченні з союзами hardly .... when, scarcely .... when, no sooner .... than(Не встиг .... як, ледь .... як). У підрядному реченні вживається Past Simple.

He had scarcely finished his work when somebody knocked at the door.

We had hardly settled down in our seats when the lights went out.

У таких пропозиціях іноді спостерігається зворотний порядок слів (інверсія), коли для додання стилістичного ефекту допоміжне дієслово hadпередує підлягає.

Hardly had the train left the station when there was an explosion.

Scarcely had we arrived home when the police called.

No sooner had it stopped raining than the sun came out.

Примітка. В оповіданні, при викладі послідовних дій, що відбувалися одна за одною, дієслова, які виражають ці дії, вживаються в Past Simple, незважаючи на те, що одні дії відбувалися раніше інших. Якщо при викладі послідовних дій згадується інша дія, яке їм передувало, тобто відбулося раніше подій, які є основною темою викладу, то ця дія виражається дієсловом в Past Perfect.

In October Andrew set out alone to London. Now that the exam was so close at hand, he felt that he knew nothing. Yet, on the following day when he began the written part of the examination, he found himself answering the papers with a blind automatism. He wrote and wrote, Never looking at the clock, filling sheet after sheet. He had taken a room at the Museum Hotel. Here it was extremely cheap. But the food was bad. Between the exams he lived in a kind of a daze.

Якщо при викладі послідовних дій згадується ряд інших дій, які їм передували і які утворюють нову послідовність дій, Past Perfect використовується або для всіх дій (a), або тільки для першого (b). У подібних випадках суворого правила не існує.

a) Jack chose the hotel. He had never been there before but he had heard his mother speak of it once. She had said she had liked it.

b) It was at Blackstable that I first met Edward. I was fifteen and had just come back from school or the summer holidays. The morning after I got home I took a towel and went down to the beach. Passing the bank, I called in to greet the manager, and when I came out I met my uncle. He stoppedandshookhands with me. He was walking with a stranger. He introducedme to him.

Exercise 7.Put verbs in brackets into either the Past Simple or the Past perfect.

I can not believe I (get) .......... that apartment. I (submit) .......... my application last week, but I did not think I had a chance of actually getting it. When I (show) .......... up to take a look around, there were at least twenty other people who (arrive) .......... before me. Most of them (fill, already) .......... out their applications and were already leaving. The landlord said I could still apply, so I did.

I (try) .......... to fill out the form, but I could not answer half of the questions. They (want) .......... me to include references, but I did not want to list my previous landlord because I (have) .......... some problems with him in the past and I knew he would not recommend me. I (end) .......... up listing my father as a reference.

It was total luck that he (decide) .......... to give me the apartment. It turns out that the landlord and my father (go) .......... to high school together. He decided that I could have the apartment before he (look) .......... at my credit report. I really lucked out.

Exercise 8. Use the Past Perfect, the Past Simple or the Past Continuous in the following sentences.

A.

1) When we (start) talking I realized that we (meet) before.

2) The doctor (examine) him and found that he (break) his arm.

3) Peter (offer) me another drink but I decided I (drink) enough.

4) The shouts of the people (indicate) that the match (begin).

5) The work (be) much more difficult than we (expect).

6) David (know) what to order, as he (eat) Japanese food before.

7) Nobody (bother) to tell me that the school (decide) to have a special holiday that Friday.

8) There (be) a short silence after he (leave).

9) The sky (clear) and the moon (shine) on the snow.

10) I (feel) awful after lunch as I (eat) too much.

11) The last time we (meet) both of us just (start) new jobs.

12) I (find) it difficult to convince the ticket inspector that I (lose) my ticket.

13) I (open) the window and (look out). The car (stand) where I (leave) it.

14) I (call) at nine and the man (say) she (go) out about an hour ago.

15) When we (arrive), the train already (leave), so we had to wait for the next one.

16) When I went into the office next morning I already (formulate) my plan.

17) When John (enter) the room everybody (stop) talking and (look) at him.

18) I had the impression that he (be) there for some time already.

19) He knew that they already (leave) Sheffield.

20) We (not walk) a hundred yards towards the cottage when the inspector suddenly (go) down on his knees and (begin) to examine something on the ground.

21) When we (come) to the airport last night the plane already (land) and the passengers (walk) to the shuttle bus.

22) The rain nearly (stop) when we reached his hotel.

23) When I came, he just (finish) the translation of the article and (have) coffee.

24) Brenda (leave) before I (have) time to talk to her.

25) By the time they reached the station he (make up) his mind.

B.

1) We (buy) our tickets and five minutes later the train (arrive).

2) He (telephone) to his office as soon as he (reach) his house.

3) When the car (stop) in front of the door he (look) dazed.

4) Hardly he (ask) his question when she (answer) it.

5) Whenever he (find) a job, there was someone who (know) that he (go) to prison.

6) I (not be) in the pub two minutes when somebody (bring) Tom in for a drink.

7) After she (go), Willy (lock) the door and (go) into the bedroom.

8) No sooner the curtain (fall) than he (rise) to go.

9) I (know) I (do) well in my exams even before I (receive) the official results.

10) He (stumble) against the chair before he (find) the lamp.

11) We (expect) Neil to come for dinner but he (take) a wrong turning and (get) completely lost.

12) When the guard (get) back, he (find) the prisoner (bolt).

13) He (walk) quite close to them before he (speak).

14) Then we (realize) that Dick (come) in through the garden and (stand) in the room listening.

15) Before I (go) to live in Spain I (think) it was a hot country.

16) When I (look) through my books yesterday I (find) an old photo of mine.

17) Hardly I (leave) the house when it (start) raining.

18) My watch (keep) good time before I (drop) it.

19) He scarcely (take) the coat off when he (begin) to read the letter.

20) I (walk) down the street the other day when I (bump) into an old friend of mine.

21) He no sooner (arrive) in London than he (get) a telegram that his father (be) seriously ill.

22) He (take) hardly a few steps along the street when two men (appear) from around the corner.

23) Tim came as I (leave). So we did not have enough time to talk.

24) When I (arrive) he (stay) at the same hotel where we first (meet).

25) Thank God I (find) it out before I (make) more of a fool of myself.

26) The bus (begin) to move before he (reach) it.

27) As soon as I (hear) the sound I (know) what had happened.

28) By the time we (get) to Meg's hotel she (book) out.

29) She (type) the text and (look through) the files.

30) When I first (see) her I (think) she (be) the most beautiful woman I ever (meet).

Exercise 9.Translate into English.

1) Ніхто не знав, що сталося з ними.

2) До ранку вони дісталися до мотелю.

3) Коли я прокинувся, сонце вже зійшло.

4) Не встиг я дійти до кута, як почув чиїсь кроки позаду.

5) Він подивився на мене і нічого не сказав. Він чекав когось.

6) По дорозі додому вона намагалася згадати, коли вона бачила Джона востаннє.

7) Я відкрив двері. Студенти ще писали, тільки один або два вже здали (hand in) свої роботи.

8) До того часу я його знав уже багато років.

9) Коли ми вийшли з дому, дощ перестав, і яскраво світило сонце.

10) Я не пробув і п'яти хвилин в кімнаті, як двері відчинилися, і вона увійшла.

11) Він підійшов до вікна, відкрив його і помахав комусь рукою.

12) Вони обговорювали новини, які тільки що отримали.

13) Після того як незграбний момент пройшов, все розслабилися.

14) Він відніс свою валізу в вагон і курив на пероні.

15) Не встигли ми виїхати з міста, як зламалася машина.

16) Я ще не встиг заснути, коли почув шум на сходах.

17) Велосипеда в сараї не було. Його знову взяв Майкл ..

18) Вони пішли тільки після того, як ми обговорили програму.

19) Після того, як всі пішли, вона взяла трубку і швидко набрала номер.

20) Тільки-но він вийшов з машини, як його заарештували.

21) Він виглядав як людина, яка тільки що отримав мільйон доларів.

22) Ми прожили на дачі два місяці, коли мій брат приїхав провідати нас.

23) Ми прожили там тиждень і повернулися в Лондон поїздом.

24) Коли вони приїхали на вокзал, він уже прийняв рішення (make up one's mind).

25) Після того, як він побачив це на власні очі, він повірив, що диво (miracle) дійсно відбулося.

26) Не встигли ми сісти за стіл, як прийшли гості.

27) Коли вони пішли, я згадав, що не показав їм фотографії.

28) Вона надрукувала своє резюме (summary) і відправила його по електронній пошті.

29) Коли я прийшов, вона читала лист, який тільки що отримала.

30) Перед тим, як він заклеїв (seal) конверт, він ще раз перечитав листа.

Exercise 10. Translate the story and comment on the use of the Past Perfect.

"Polite Notice"

Jack Jones left his office at 6 p.m. He had a very busy day. When he got to the station there were thousands of people waiting. So the train was very crowded.

Glad of fresh air, he walked from the railway station near his home and in a few minutes reached the street where he had lived for many years. What he saw as he came round the corner made him very angry indeed.

"Can not you read?" he said angrily to the man who had just got out of a car right in front of the gate of Mr. Jones 'house, and he pointed to the "No parking" notice that he had asked a local builder to put in the front garden.

"No", said the man in an unpleasant manner. "Nobody taught me". Mr. Jones became angrier than he had ever been before. When he entered his house Mrs. Jones tried to calm him but it was useless.

He changed into his working clothes which he always wore when he was working in the garden and went out to do some work.

He looked carefully at the well-made and neatly painted board that faced the street. It so clearly indicated that there was to be no parking outside his house. He remembered telling the painter to make it clear so that people driving by in their cars could read it quite easily.

To make matters worse, the houses farther down the street had no cars parked outside them. This was because, a few weeks earlier, the police had fixed up a notice with the words "Police Notice - No Parking" in clear white letters on a bright blue background. Suddenly an idea started to form in his mind and he began to see the possibility of a scheme for clearing away these wretched cars that had been obstructing the front of his house, all day long, for many months.

He did not tell his wife about it, so that when he brought home a large parcel a few days later she was very surprised. He changed into his working clothes, took the parcel with him and went out into the garden.

A little while later he took his wife out to see what he had done. To her surprise she found that he had taken away the little black and white "No Parking" notice and in its place was a new board painted bright blue with white lettering on it which said "Polite Notice - No Parking". Jack Jones was never troubled with cars parking outside the gate of his house again. It is a funny thing, but true, that people usually read what they expect to see. Hardly anyone noticed that it was a "polite notice" and not a "police notice".

 



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Негативна форма загальних питань. | Освіта Present Continuous. | Вживання Present Continuous. | Past Simple | Вживання Past Simple | She wrote her first novel at the age of nineteen. | Вживання Past Continuous. | Освіта Present Perfect | Вживання Present Perfect. | Present Perfect and Past Simple |

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