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  6. Quot; стислість ТЕКСТА'ЗАКОНА
  7. Read every third, fourth, fifth letter of the alphabet (Прочитайте кожну третю, четверту, п'яту букву в алфавіті).

Russian Federation:

Political System and Economy

The Russian Federation is set up by the Constitution of 1 993 after the collapse of the Soviet Union. According to the Constitution Russia is a Presidential Republic. The President is elected for six years and is the head of the State.

The President is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, he makes treaties, enforces laws and appoints ministers.

The Federal Government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. All of them are checked by the President.

The legislative power is represented by the Federal Assembley. It consists of two chambers. The Upper Chamber is the Council of Federation, The Lower Chamber is the State Duma.

To become a law a bill must be approved by both chambers and signed by the President. The President may veto the bill.

The executive power belongs to the Government which is headed by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister forms his Cabinet.

The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court, The Supreme Court and regional courts.

The State symbol of Russia is a three-coloured banner with three horizontal stripes: White, blue and red. The white stripe symbolizes the earh, the blue one - the sky, and the red one symbolizes the liberty.

A new National Emblem is a two-headed eagle which is the most ancient symbol of Russia. All these symbols have been approved by the Federal Assembly.

Russian is the state language of Russia. It is spoken throughout the whole territory of the Russian Federation. Meanwhile each Republic within Russia has its own national language.

Russia was the most populous state of the former USSA and also the wealthiest one. It produced 78% of all its natural gas, 60% of steel, 80% of timber and 91% of oil. It also has one of the world's largest fishing industries.

The history of Russia industry goes back to the middle of the 17th century. The development of new industries and crafts - Metal working, textiles, brick making and chinamanufacture - was encouraged under Peter the Great. During the reign of Catherine the Great, the Urals became the focus for iron industry, and Russia became the world's largest iron producer.

After 1870 the fast railway engineering in Russia was stimulated by industrial boom. Some deals were made with western companies to develop Russian's immense oil resources. By 1903 Russia had been the world's largest oil producer.

Before the Revolution Russia was one of the world's largest grain producers and exporters. But lately Russia became one of its biggest importers as a result of collectivization and mismanagement of agriculture.

In Soviet times, the central planning system was inefficient as regards both production and distribution of goods. By 1980s the quality gap between home and western products could no longer be ignored and called for reforms. Entering the world market demands from Russian economists the creation of effective management in industry and agriculture.

Until its industry can be modernized, Russia will remain dependent on the energy sector. Before 1986 it was planned that an expanded nuclear programme could help the conservation of other energy resources. But after the Chernobyl disaster, These plans were sharply curtailed.

However, disposal of nuclear waste and closing down of old power plants remain major problems not only for Russia but for other industrial countries as well.


collapse - крах

elect - вибирати

Supreme Commander-in-Chief - верховний головнокомандувач

make treaty - укладати договір

enforce law - проводити законопроект

appoint - призначати

legislative - законодавчий

executive - виконавчий

judicial - судовий

Upper Chamber - верхня палата

Lower Chamber - нижня палата

bill - законопроект

vetto - накладення вето

Constitutional Court - конституційний суд

stripe - смуга

two-headed eagle - двоголовий орел

meanwhile - між тим

populous - населений

produce - виробляти

timber - лісоматеріал

development - розвиток

craft - ремесло

brick - цегла

china - фарфор

encourage - підтримувати

reign - царювання, влада

deal - угода

grain - зерно

mismanagement - погане управління

inefficient - неефективний

goods - товари

gap - розбіжність

home - вітчизняний

world market - світовий ринок

dependent - залежний

expanded - розширений

nuclear - ядерний

conservation - збереження

disaster - катастрофа

curtail - скоротити

disposal - розміщення

waste - відходи

oil - нафта

iron - залізо

Знайдіть в тексті місця, які містять відповіді на запропоновані питання

1 When was the new Constitution of the Russian Federation adopted?

2 What is the Russian federation State system according to the Constitution?

3 What is the structure of Federal Government?

4 What chambers does the Federal Assembley consist of?

5 Whom does the executive power belong to?

6 Who is head of the Government?

7 What is the Judicial branch of power represented by?

8 What is the hymn of Russia?

9 What is the National Emblems of Russia?

10 What was the economical position of Russia in the former USSR?

11 What industries and crafts were encouraged in Russia under Peter the Great?

12 When was Russia one of the biggest grain producers and exporters?

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