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THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

  1. AMERICAN CELEBRATIONS
  2. American cuts of pork.
  3. American English
  4. AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL TRADITIONS
  5. Americans are not your enemy, president tells Arabic TV network as US envoy sets out on eight days of talks
  6. As American As Apple Pie
  7. B) Say what you know about the cost of health service in America, in Russia and in other countries nowadays.

I. Згодні звуки [q], [¶].

II. Text A: «The USA»,

Text В: «Transport Sustem of the USA».

III.§1. Узгодження часів в головному і підрядному реченнях,

§2. Пасивний стан.

Згідний звук [q]

У російській мові подібного звуку немає. Звук [q] - глухий. При його проголошенні мова розпластаний і не напружений, кінчик язика утворює вузьку плоску щілину, нещільно притискаючись до нього. У цю щілину з силою проходить струмінь повітря. Кінчик мови не повинен сильно виступати за верхні зуби або занадто щільно притискатися до губ. Зуби повинні бути оголені, особливо нижні, так, щоб нижня губа не торкалася верхніх зубів і не наближалася до них.

Приголосний звук [¶]

При проголошенні звуку [¶] органи мови займають таке ж положення, як і при проголошенні звуку [q]. Звук [¶] відрізняється від звуку [q] тільки дзвінкість.

 through - fifth - myththief - booth - tooththank - think - thoughttheatre - theory - theft  threat - three - thunderthrew - throat - thumbfaith - heart - pathbath - booth - broth
 thermometer - thick - thinthirst - thirty - thorough  this - that - these - thosethere - thoughthem - they - the

Text A: «THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA»

The United States of America is the 4th largest country in the world after Russia, Canada and China. It occupies the central part of the North American continent.

The United States of America is a federal republic, consisting of 50 states including the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, and the US Virgin Islands.

The northern boundary is partly formed by the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence River; the southern boundary is partly formed by the Rio Grande. United States also has a sea-border with Russia.

The total area of ??the United States (including the District of Columbia) is about 9,809,000 sq km.

The country is washed by 3 oceans: the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific. The country has many lakes, with the Great Lakes included. There are also many rivers on the US territory. The longest of them are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Columbia, the Rio Grande and some others. On the US territory there are mountains and lowlands. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak, Mount McKinley, is located in Alaska.

The climate conditions are rather different. The country is rich in natural and mineral resources: oil, gas, iron ore, coal and various metals.

The USA is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. The main industrial branches are aircraft, rocket, automobile, electronics, radio-engineering and others.

Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations. The country population is over 250 min. The national symbol of the USA is its national flag «Stars and Stripes», having 50 white stars and 13 white and red stripes on its field, symbolising the number of the original and present day states.

Officially the country comprises 50 states and one District of Columbia. The states differ in size, population and economic development. Each state has its own capital. The capital of the USA is Washington. It is situated in the District of Columbia on the banks of the Potomac river and is named after the 1st US President - George Washington. There are many large cities in the country: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San-Francisco, Cleveland and some others.

The United States of America is a federal state, headed by the President. According to the US Constitution the powers of the Government are divided into 3 branches: legislative, executive and judicial.

The legislative power belongs to the Congress consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states while the House of Representatives - the population. The executive power belongs to the President and his Administration (Vice-President and Cabinet of Ministers). The judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court and the system of Federal, state and district courts.

There are several political parties in the USA, the largest of them are the Republican (symbolised by a donkey) and the Democratic (symbolised by an elephant).

outlying areas - зовнішні території

District of Columbia - округ Колумбія

to pass - проходити через

frontier - межа

to include - включати

lowlands - низини

peak - вершина, пік

to be located - розташовуватися

aircraft - повітряне судно

to be made up from - бути складеним, складатися з

stripe - смуга

to symbolize - символізувати

legislative power - законодавча влада

to represent - представляти

to belong - належати

donkey - осел

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

a) Great Plains - Великі рівнини

Appalachian mountains - гори Аппалачі

Rocky mountains - Скелясті гори

b) driveway - проїзд, виїзд

sidewalk - тротуар

drive-thru shop - магазин, покупки у якому виробляються через вікно автомобіля

toll-road - платна дорога (магістраль)

toll-free road - безкоштовна дорога

highway, parkway, thruway - автомагістралі

turnpike - головна магістраль

shopping-mall - торговий центр

shopping plaza - відкрита торговельна площа, торговий ряд

free delivery - безкоштовна доставка

telephone order - телефонне замовлення

sale - розпродаж

discount - знижка

seasons sale - сезонний розпродаж

clearance sale - розпродаж покладів товарів

discount coupon - купон на знижку

free gift - безкоштовний подарунок

Exercise 7.1. Translate into English:

1. США - четверта за розміром країна після Росії, Канади і Китаю.

2. Зовнішні кордони включають в себе Пуерто Ріко, Американське Самоа і Віргінські острови.

3.48 Штатів межують на півночі з Канадою, а на півдні з Мексикою.

4. США має морський кордон з Російською Федерацією.

6. США омивається трьома океанами: Північним Льодовитим, Атлантичним і Тихим.

7. США - високорозвинена промислова держава з безліччю галузей.

8. Аерокосмічна та електронні галузі промисловості США займають особливе місце в економіці США.

9. Кожен штат має свою столицю.

Text В: «TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF THE USA»

The development of transport facilities was very important in the growth of the United States. The first travel routes were natural waterways. No surfaced roads existed until the 1790s, when the first turnpikes were built. Besides the overland roads, many canals were constructed between the late 18th century and 1850 to link navigable rivers and lakes in the eastern United States and in the Great Lakes region. Steam railways began to appear in the East in the 1820s. The first transcontinental railway was constructed between 1862 and +1869 by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific companies, both of which received large subsidies from the federal government. Transcontinental railways were the chief means of transport used by European settlers who populated the West in the latter part of the 19th century. The railways continued to expand until 1917, when their length reached a peak of about 407,000 km. Since then motor transport became a serious competitor to the railway both for passengers and freight.

Air transport began to compete with other modes of transport after World War I. Passenger service began to gain importance in 1920s, but not until the beginning of commercial jet craft after World War II did air transport become a leading mode of travel.

During the early 1990s railways annually handled about 37,5 per cent of the total freight traffic; trucks carried 26 per cent of the freight, and oil pipelines conveyed 20 per cent. Approximately 16 per cent was shipped on inland waterways. Although the freight handled by airlines amounted to only 0,4 per cent of the total, much of the cargo consisted of high-priority or high-value items.

Private cars carry about 81 per cent of passengers. Airlines are the second leading mover of people, carrying more than 17 per cent of passengers. Buses are responsible for 1,1 per cent, and railways carry 0,6 per cent of passengers.



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