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MY HOME TOWN

I. Голосні звуки [u:], [u].

II. Text A: «Sochi».

Text B: «Rostov-on-Don».

II1.§1. Займенники little і few і займенників вираження a little і a few.

§2. Оборот there is / there are.

Голосний звук [u:]

При проголошенні довгого голосного звуку [u:] губи напружені і сильно округлені, але набагато менше висунуті вперед, ніж при російській звуці [у]: moon. На листі передається буквосочетанием подвійне О, за винятком випадків перед буквою k.

Наприклад: soon - скоро, незабаром, moon - місяць

Виняток: book - книга (короткий і)

Голосний звук [u]

При проголошенні короткого голосного звуку [u] губи помітно округлені, але не висунуті вперед, мова відтягнуть назад, але трохи менше, ніж для і: (u довгого). Звук нагадує ненаголошений російський звук [у] в словах порожній, тупий, виголошений без висунення губ вперед:

hook - гак, look - погляд

Запам'ятайте слова, в яких в якості винятку вимовляється [u]: put - класти, pull - тягнути, push - штовхати, full - повний

 too - tooth - foodboot - fool - footsoon - spoon - toothboot - mood - shook  fool - pool - hookfool - too - bookcook - boot - loopfoot - cool - mood  pull (тягти) - pool (басейн) tool (інструмент) - full (повний)

Text A: «SOCHI»

«Big Sochi - the best place on the Earth!»

Hello, everyone! Here is Ann Sokolova again. This time I'll tell you about my lovely hometown - Sochi. I am sure everyone knows where Sochi is. For those who are not really sure I remind that it is situated on the Black Sea coast about 1500 km south from Moscow.

But what makes this city so special? Sochi is called the city of three seasons because there's no winter here. As we usually say, «the golden autumn slowly turns into the early spring.» When golden leaves slowly fall down on the earth the first flowers begin to blossom. Sochi is the only northern subtropical city in Russia. One can bathe in the Black Sea from May till October because the water of the Black Sea is still warm. The water of the Black Sea contains many chemical substances such as iodine, chlorine, bromine, sulphates, carbonates, sodium, potassium, etc. All of them react with your body and make you healthier. There are many mineral water springs in Sochi and its area.

Have you ever heard the name Big Sochi? Sochi is one of the most stretched cities along the sea coast - it is 148 km long! Small towns and cities Adler, Khosta, Kudepsta, Dagomys and Lazarevskoye belong to Big Sochi!

The history of this area goes back to the ancient times. One can call this area «the Cradle of Mankind». People came here from the Asia Minor 400-350 thousand years ago. There are more than 150 historical places of interest in the area. Here the camps and caves of prehistoric people have been found.

The dolmens - massive prehistoric grave structures from the 2nd thousand B.C. are the features of the Bronze era. The most ancient five-stone dolmens are found in the Sochi area. Travellers of the 19th century called dolmens «the houses of the giants» because each grave stone weighs from 500 to 3000 kg. It is still uncertain what technical developments made it possible to construct such structures.

The rich lands of Caucasus always attracted invaders: Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Genuese, Turks.

In the VIth century B.C. the Black Sea coast attracted Greek colonists, who have based a number of trade-settlements, such as Dioscuria (modern city of Sukhumi), Pitiunt (Pitsunda), Triglif (Gagra).

Christian religion was brought over from the Byzantynne three centuries earlier than to Russia. In the end of Xth - Beginning of the XIth centuries A.D. the first known Christian constructions were built in Loo, Galitsino and Veseloye.

During the XVIIIth-XIXth centuries Russia conducted long wars with Turkey for the exit to the Black Sea. In 1829 році, after the end of Russian-Turkish war, by the peace treaty the Black Sea coast of Caucasus, from the mouth of the Kuban river up to a fort St.Nicholas (to the south of modern city Poti), has departed to Russia.

Symbol of the victory of the Russian weapon in the war of тисяча вісімсот двадцять дев'ять is the monument near modern hotel «Leningrad» - «Anchor and Cannon».

The end of Russian-Turkish war has not solved all the problems of strengthening of Russia on the Black Sea coast. The Black Sea coastal line consisting of 17 forts was created with this purpose.

On April 21st, 1838 a small wooden fortress was established in the Sochi river area to protect this land from local tribes. It was named Alexandria in honour of emperess Alexandra. It was renamed one year later, on May 18, 1839 and became Navaginskoye. But in 1854, because of the beginning of the Crimean war, the fortress was destroyed by Russian army. Russians left this area. Only 10 years later, on March 25th, 1864 the new fortress named Dakhovskiy was established on the place of the Navaginskiy fortress.

In +1896 by the decision of the Tsarist government fortress Dakhovskiy was renamed in the settlement of Sochi, after the name of the river Sochi.

In the end of XIXth century the Black Sea coast was intensively occupied by the immigrants from central parts of Russia, Moldova, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, Georgia and Armenians and Greeks from Turkey. The Sochi district becomes multinational area of ??Russian Empire.

In Soviet times Sochi was a quickly developing port, industrial and resort city on the Black Sea. The fast development of the city and construction of modern houses was due to Joseph Stalin's sympathy to this place. Many streets in the center of Sochi look like the center of Moscow built in 30s and 50s.

Until now the favourite residence of Russian Presidents was Bocharov creek (струмок). Ski resorts of Krasnaya polyana, warm blue waters of Black Sea, luxurious tennis courts create irresistable atmosphere around the place.

I guess, I have taken a lot of your attention already. You know yourself what a popular resort is Sochi nowadays. Just buy the ticket and have your suitcases packed!

to remind - нагадувати

to turn into - прeвращаться (у що-небудь)

blossom - цвісти

chemical substances - хімічні речовини

iodine - йод

chlorine - хлор

bromine - бром

sulphate сульфат

carbonates - карбонати

sodium - натрій

potassium - калій

to be stretched - бути витягнутим

events - події, заходи

«The Cradle of Mankind» - «колиска людства»

B.C. (Before Christ) - до н.е.

Asia Minor - півострів Мала Азія

camp - табір

cave [keiv] - печера

Bronze era - бронзовий вік

pre-historic - доісторичний

grave structures - могильники

dolmens - дольмени

features - особливості

to weigh - важити

uncertain - неопреленний

construct - зводити, будувати

attract - залучати

invader - загарбник

trade-settlements - торгові поселення, факторії

Byzantynne - Візантія

A.D. - (Anno Domini) - нашої ери (н.е.)

to conduct - проводити

exit - вихід

peace treaty [ 'tri: ti] - мирний договір

mouth of the river - гирло річки

weapon - зброя

anchor - якір

cannon - гармата

purpose - мета

fortress - форт, зміцнення

in honour of emperess Alexandra - на честь імператриці Олександри

to be occupied - бути зайнятим, заселеним

due to - завдяки (кому-небудь, чого-небудь)

luxurious - розкішний

irresistible - чарівний

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

village - село, село

cossack's settlement - козача станиця

town - невелике місто

suburbs - передмістя

city ??- велике місто

center of the region - районний центр

capital of the republic - столиця республіки

capital of the federal district - столиця федерального округу

ancient history - давня історія

medieval history - середньовічна історія

Dark Ages - середні століття

Tsarist's Russia - царська Росія

Great October revolution - Велика жовтнева революція

Great Patriotic War - Велика Вітчизняна війна

WWII (World War II) - друга світова війна

soviet times - радянські часи

former USSR - колишній СРСР

c) historical center - історичний центр

cultural center - культурний центр

trade center - торговий центр

transport center - транспортний центр

Exercise 4.1. Translate into English:

1. Моє рідне місто було засноване під час царювання Миколи I.

2. Перше укріплення на місці сучасного Сочі було названо на честь імператриці Олександри.

3. Під час Великої вітчизняної війни німецькі війська двічі захоплювали наше місто.

4. Володимир - один з найдавніших російських міст.

5. М'який клімат і родючі землі завжди привертав загарбників на берега Кубані.

6. Великий російський винахідник Володимир Комаров жив і працював в нашому місті.

7. Сучасний Новоросійськ - це найбільший портовий місто на узбережжі Чорного моря.

8. Наше місто є одночасно великим індустріальним і історичним центром регіону.

Exercise 4.2. Answer the following questions:

1. Do you study in your hometown or you just live here while studying?

2. Do you like the city where you study? Why and why not?

3. Do you know the history of your hometown?

4. When was your hometown founded?

5. Do you know any famous people who were born in your hometown?

6. What are the places of interest in your hometown?

7. What is your favourite place in your hometown?

Exercise 4.3. Derive the adjective (прикметник) from the noun (іменник):

- History - historical

- Military -

- Culture -

- Science -

- Industry -

- Trade -

- Agriculture -

- Administration -

- Politics -

Text B: «ROSTOV-ON-DON»

Rostov-on-Don, the capital of the Southern federal district and Rostov region, is a comparatively young city. Not so long ago Rostovites celebrated its 250th anniversary. The city was founded in 1749 when a custom-house on the Temernik river was set up. According to a legend, Tsar Peter the First tried the water from a spring when he stopped on the right bank of the Don on his way to Azov. He was so pleased with the taste of water that he called the spring «Bogaty istochnik» - Rich spring. The name of the spring gave the name to the street. The water is being bottled now and sold all over the country.

But only years later, after the death of Tsar Peter I, under the rule of Katherine II a fortress was built here. The main purpose of the fortress was to support the customs effectively operating in this trade and transport active region. The fortress was named after Dimitry Rostovsky, the Archbishop of Rostov the Great. The town grew later on, round the walls of the fortress and it was also called «Rostov which lies on the river Don».

Rostov is situated on the right bank of the river Don, not far from the Sea of ??Azov. Due to its geographical position the city grew rapidly.

After the hard years of the Civil War Rostovites restored the ruined economy of the region.

During the World War II Rostov was occupied by the Germans twice. They destroyed almost all the city. Nowadays Rostov is the largest city in the South of the country. It's a big sea and river port and an important railway junction. Rostov is called «The Gateway to the Caucasus».

The main branch of industry is agricultural machine building. «Rostselmash» is a giant machine building plant producing a lot of agricultural machines. Factories of Rostov produce champagne, cigarettes, musical instruments which are well-known abroad. There is also a big helicopter plant in Rostov.

Rostov is the cultural centre of the Rostov region. There are many educational establishments in Rostov including the Rostov State University founded in Warsaw in 1815. There are six theatres in Rostov (Gorky Drama Theatre, Philharmonic, Puppet Theatre, Theatre of Musical Comedy, Theatre of Young Spectators and Musical Theatre).

There are two museums (Local Lore Museum, Fine Arts Museum), eight stadiums, several Palaces of Culture, a lot of cinemas, libraries, parks and gardens.

Rostov is famous for many prominent people who lived here.

The city is very green. There are a lot of parks in the city. In summer you can see a lot of people on the beach on the left bank of the Don river.

General understanding:

1. What is the status of Rostov-on-Don now?

2. Is Rostov-on-Don an old city?

3. What role did Peter the Great play in the history of Rostov-on-Don?

4. Why did Peter the Great call the spring «rich».

5. When was the first fortress built? How was it called?

GRAMMAR

§1. Займенники little і few і займенників вираження a little і a few.

Займенник little і местоименное вираз a little вживаються з неісчісляемимі іменниками, займенник few і местоименное вираз a few - з обчислюваними:

Give me a little water, please. There is little milk in the bottle.

I have a few friends in Minsk I've got only few pencils in the box.

Займенники few і little означають «мало», а займенникові вираження a few і a little - «трохи».

Much (багато) вживається з неісчісляемимі іменниками, many (багато) - з обчислюваними.

Exercise 4.4. Insert much, many, little, a little, few, a few:

1. I'd like to say ... words about my travelling. 2. She gave him ... water to wash his hands and face. 3. He had ... English books at home, so he had to go to the library. 4. After the lesson everybody felt ... tired. 5. Let's stay here ... longer. I like it here. 6. There were ... new words in the text and Peter spent ... time learning them. 7. There was ... sugar in the bowl, and we had to put ... sugar there. 8. My mother knows German ... and she can help you with the translation of this text. 10. When we walked ... farther down the road we met another group of pupils. 11. Have you got ... time before the lesson?

Exercise 4.5. Translate into English:

Багато зошитів, багато молока, багато води, багато днів, багато газет, багато крейди, багато снігу, багато років, багато картин, багато музики, багато цукру, багато чаю, багато лимонів, багато м'яса, багато кімнат, багато вчителів, багато роботи , багато повітря, багато птахів, багато машин.

Exercise 4.6. Insert much or many:

1. Please do not ask me ... questions. 2. How ... money have you got? 3.1 never eat ... bread with soup. 4. Why did you eat so ... ice-cream? 5. She wrote us ... letters from the country. 6. ... of these students do not like to look up words in the dictionary. 7. ... in this work was too difficult for me. 8. He spent ... time writing his composition in Literature. 9. There were ... plates on the table. 10. Thank you very ...! 11. ... of my friends are preparing for their entrance examinations now. 12. I do not like ... sugar in my tea.

Exercise 4.7. Translate into English:

1. У склянці є трохи молока. 2. У зошиті залишилося мало чистих сторінок. 3. У тебе багато кави? - Ні, дуже мало. 4. Мало хто з англійців розмовляють російською. 5. У них тут дуже мало друзів. 6. У нього дуже мало часу для читання. 7. У Петра багато російських книжок і мало англійських книг. 8. У мене є трохи часу ввечері, щоб закінчити цю роботу. 9. Я проводжу багато часу в бібліотеці, бо я готуюся до іспитів.

§2. Оборот there is / there are.

Оборот there is / there are служить для вираження наявності (відсутності) будь-якого предмета в певному місці або в певний час. Форми минулого і майбутнього часу: there was, there were і there will be.

There are some pictures on the wall. На стіні кілька картин.

There was nobody in the room. У кімнаті нікого не було.

Вибір форми дієслова to be залежить від числа іменника, наступного відразу за ним:

There is a chair and two armchairs in the room.

There are two armchairs and a chair in the room. Питальні речення з оборотом there is / there are будуються таким чином

Загальне питання: Is there anything in the bag? Will there be lessons tomorrow?

Спеціальний питання: What is there in the bag?

Розділове питання. There are some pupils in the classroom, are not there?

Exercise 4.8. Insert to be in the right form:

1 .There ... a telegram on the table. 2 .... there any telegrams from Moscow? Yes, there ... some. 3 .... there ... a flight for Moscow tomorrow? Yes, there .... 4. There ... much snow last winter. 5.There ... a lot of stars and planets in space. 6 .... there ... a lift in your future house? Yes, there ... .... 7. Some years ago there ... many old houses in our street. 8. ... there any lectures yesterday? No, there ... 9. ... there a lamp over the table? Yes, there .... 10. ... there any interesting stories in this book? 11. ... there a test last lesson? No, there .... 12. Soon there ...... a new film on.

Exercise 4.9. Translate the following sentences and put general questions to them:

1. There are some new pupils in our group. 2. There is no book on the table. 3. There were many old houses in our street. 4. There are 4 seasons in a year. 5. There will be a conference next week. 6. There are many large cities in our country. 7. There was nobody in the room. 8. There are 7 days in a week. 9. There is something on the shelf. 10. There are many places of interest in London. 11. There are many beautiful flowers in our garden. 12. There was much work last week.

Exercise 4.10. Rewrite the following sentences in Past Indefinite and Future Indefinite, translate them into Russian:

1. There is much snow in winter. 2. There are 4 theatres in our city. 3. There is no lift in our house. 4. There are many new books in our library. 5. There is little milk in the bottle. 6. There are 3 rooms in our flat. 7. There is a map on the wall.

UNIT 5



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