Young men and women today are finding it more and more necessary to protest against what is known as the 'Establishment': that is, the people who wield power in our society. Clashes with the authorities are reported almost daily in the press. The tension that exists between old and young 5 could certainly be lessened if some of the most obvious causes were removed. In particular, the Establishment should adopt different attitudes to work and the rewards it brings. Today's young people are ambitious. Many are equipped with fine educations and are understandably impatient to succeed as quickly as possible. They want to be able to have their share of the good things in life while they are still young enough to enjoy them. The Establishment, however, has traditionally believed that people should be rewarded according to their age and experience. Ability counts for less. As the Establishment controls the purse-strings, its views are inevitably imposed on society. Employers pay the smallest sum consistent with keeping you in a job. You join the hierarchy and take your place in the queue. If you are young, you go to the very end of the queue and stay there no matter how brilliant you are. What you know is much less important than whom you know and how old you are. If you are able, your abilities will be acknowledged and rewarded in due course - that is, after twenty or thirty years have passed. By that time you will be considered old enough to join the Establishment and you will be expected to adopt its ideals. God help you if you do not.
There seems to be a gigantic conspiracy against young people. While on the one hand society provides them with better educational facilities, on the other it does its best to exclude them from the jobs that really matter. There are exceptions, of course. Some young people do manage to break through the barrier despite the restrictions, but the great majority have to wait patiently for years before they can really give full rein to their abilities. This means that, in most fields, the views of young people are never heard because there is no one to represent them. All important decisions about how society is to be run are made by people who are too old to remember what it was like to be young. President Kennedy was one of the notable exceptions. One of the most tragic aspects of his assassination is that mankind was deprived of a youthful leader.
Resentment is the cause of a great deal of bitterness. The young resent the old because they feel deprived of the good things life has to offer. The old resent the young because they are afraid of losing what they have. A man of fifty or so might say, 'Why should a young rascal straight out of school earn more than I do?' But if the young rascal is more able, more determined, harder-working than his middle-aged critic, why should not he? Employers should recognise ability and reward it justly. This would remove one of the biggest causes of friction between old and young and ultimately it would lead to a better society.
4.1.19. Переведіть слова і словосполучення на російську мову:
More necessary; almost daily; the tension between old and young; could be lessened; obvious causes; adopt different attitudes; to be impatient to succeed; to have the share of the good things; be rewarded according to the age and experience; take your place in the queue; abilities will be acknowledged; provide with better educational facilities; to break through the barrier; despite the restrictions; give full rein; to reward justly; better society.
4.1.20. Переведіть слова і словосполучення на англійську мову:
Необхідно протестувати; майже щодня; напруженість, яка існує; найочевидніші причини; особливо; не терпиться досягти успіху; так швидко, як тільки можливо; вік і досвід; зайняти місце в черзі; набагато менш важливо; будуть визнані і винагороджені; з одного боку; робочі місця, які дійсно щось значать; прорватися через перепони; переважна більшість; терпляче чекати; в більшості областей; позбавлений хороших речей.
4.1.21. Знайдіть в тексті пропозиції з даними словосполученнями:
Adopt different attitudes; understandably impatient; counts for less; join the hierarchy; much less important; in due course; better educational facilities; despite the restrictions; notable exceptions; feel deprived.
4.1.22. Поясніть по-англійськи значення даних слів і виразів:
To lessen the tension; to be ambitious; experience; jobs that really matter; give full rein to the abilities; friction between old and young; different attitudes; to control the purse-strings; conspiracy; adopt ideas.
4.1.23. Заповніть пропуски відповідними за змістом словами:
А) to receive - to accept - to adopt
1. They offered her a job and she ...... without hesitation.
2. He decided to ...... a more radical approach to the problem.
3. She ...... a camera as a birthday present.
4. Our clients will never ...... this proposal.
5. A couple is hoping to ...... a baby girl.
6. We have not ...... your letter.
7. They found it hard to ...... defeat.
8. What time can patients ...... visitors?
Б) to consider - to regard - to suppose
1. He is ...... buying a used car.
2. There was a god reason to ...... that she had left the country.
3. She was accompanied by a man who was ...... to be her husband.
4. Nuclear reactors are ...... to be dangerous
5. It is an important factor to ...... when you are choosing a profession.
6. I ...... I had better get back to work.
7. He is a highly ..... young violinist.
8. He is ...... whether to accept another job offer.
4.1.24. Заповніть пропуски приводами, де це необхідно:
1. Some .... the most obvious causes were removed.
2. Many young people are equipped .... fine educations.
3. They should be rewarded according .... their age and experience.
4. These views are inevitably imposed .... society.
5. Employers pay the smallest sum .... money consistent .... keeping you ... a job.
6. You take your place ... a queue.
7. .... that time you will be considered old enough to join the Establishment.
8. .... the one hand society provides them .... better educational facilities; ... The other it does its best to exclude them .... jobs that really matter.
9. The great majority have to wait patiently .... years before they can really give full rein .... their abilities.
10. All important decisions .... how society is to be run are made .... old people.
11. Mankind was deprived ... a youthful leader.
12. They are afraid .... losing what they have.
4.1.25. Поставте питання до виділених словами:
1. Young people are finding it necessary to protest against the Establishment.
2. Clashes with the authorities are reported almost daily.
3. The tension exists between old and young.
4. Young people are impatient to succeed as quickly as possible.
5. The employers pay the smallest sum.
6. You go to the very end of the queue.
7. Your abilities will be acknowledged in due course,
8. They have excluded them from the jobs that really matter.
9. All important decisions are made by people who are really old.
10. Employers should reward ability justly
4.1.26. Задайте альтернативний і розділовий питання до наступних пропозицій:
1. It is known as the "Establishment".
2. The tension could be lessened.
3. The most obvious causes were removed.
4. They are still young enough to join the establishment.
5. They have been rewarded for their abilities.
6. They went to the very end of the queue.
7. You will be expected to adopt these ideals.
8. They managed to break through the barrier.
9. There is no one to represent them.
10. It would lead to a better society.
4.1.27. Прочитайте дані висловлювання і вкажіть, які з них відповідають тексту:
1. It is the Establishment that has got the power in our society.
2. It's impossible to lessen the tension between young and old.
3. Today's young people are impatient to succeed quickly.
4. The Establishment has traditionally believed that people should be paid according to their abilities.
5. The Establishment regards age and experience less important than abilities.
6. Young people usually take their place in the hierarchy.
7. If young people are brilliant they take their place in the Establishment without waiting.
8. If a young person is able he is acknowledged and rewarded immediately.
9. Modern society provides young people with better educational facilities.
10. Some young people managed to break through the barrier.
11. The young resent the old because they are afraid of losing what they have.
12. If the young were rewarded according to their abilities it would remove the biggest friction between old and young.
4.1.28. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання:
1. What are young people finding necessary to do?
2. How is the Establishment defined?
3. Where is the information on clashes with the authorities published?
4. How could the tension between young and old be lessened?
5. What attitudes should the Establishment adopt?
6. What are young people impatient to do?
7. How much do employers pay?
8. Where do the young stay if they want to join the Establishment?
9. How much time will it take the young to be admitted to the Establishment?
10. Are they excluded from the jobs that really matter because of their poor education?
11. Why are the views of young people never heard in many fields?
12. Who usually makes major decisions?
13. When was mankind deprived of a youthful leader?
14. Why do the young resent the old and the old resent the young?
4.1.29. Закінчите пропозиції у відповідність зі змістом тексту:
1. Young people today protest .....
2. The tension between young and old could be lessened if .....
3. The Establishment should change ....
4. Young people want to have their share .....
5. The Establishment believes that people should be rewarded ....
6. The views of the Establishment are imposed on society because .....
7. You join the hierarchy and .....
8. You go to the very end of the queue and .....
9. What you know is less important than .....
10. Your abilities will be rewarded .....
11. When you are considered old enough to join .....
12. The society provides young people with good education but .....
13. The great majority wait patiently .....
14. The views of young people are never heard because .....
15. All important decisions are made by .....
16. Employers should recognise ....
4.1.30. Переведіть такі пропозиції на англійську мову:
1. У пресі повідомляється про сутички щотижня.
2. Напружені відносини між ними посилюються.
3. Ці причини здаються мені очевидними.
4. Людей слід винагороджувати за старанну роботу.
5. Багато молодих людей прагнуть просунутися.
6. Ця робота вимагає великого досвіду.
7. Вони, звичайно, хочуть мати свою частку в цій справі.
8. Він наповнив кошик і встав в чергу, щоб заплатити за покупки.
9. Давай підемо! Дуже нудно стояти в черзі.
10. Ваша наполеглива праця буде винагороджений свого часу.
11. Це набагато менш важливо, ніж ти вважаєш.
12. Ми очікуємо, що уряд прийме цей закон.
13. Йому вдалося досягти успіху в цій справі, незважаючи на всі обмеження.
14. Вони були змушені прийняти це рішення.
15. Вони боялися втратити те, що мали.
16. Він, на жаль, позбавлений почуття гумору.
Examinations | Прочитайте дані висловлювання і скажіть, які з них відповідають тексту. Підтвердіть свої висловлювання фактами з тексту. | Складіть анотацію тексту. | Co-education | Сформулюйте основну думку кожного абзацу. | Pаздел 3.1. | Traffic Accidents | Прочитайте дані висловлювання і вкажіть, які з них відповідають тексту. Підтвердіть свої висловлювання фактами з тексту. | Розкажіть, які закони в нашій країні допомагають знизити кількість дорожніх пригод. | Smoking |