прийменника for, доповнення та інфінітива:
1. The students were waiting for the lecturer to describe the properties of a new composite material. 2. It is for you to decide which of the two methods to use. 3. It is necessary for the students to know the properties of various alloys. 4. A system of satellites is provided for people to watch the central TV program.
Вправа 4. Переведіть пропозиції зі складним підметом:
1. Students of Cambridge are supposed to wear gowns at lectures. 2. The first pocket-size colour television sets were reported to have been developed. 3. Today's aircraft is expected to be replaced by a new model of hypersonic aircraft by the year 2000. 4. Intensive research on optical-electronic computer is said to be going on in a number of US companies. 5. A method for recording information on crystal by means of laser is known to have been developed by a Russian researcher.
6. The annual output of personal computers is expected to reach
millions in the nearest future. 7. Laser is known to be a device
producing an intensive beam of light by amplifying radiation. 8. Optical
technology has been found to be cost-effective. 9. The optical equivalent
of a transistor is reported to have been produced.
1. Our present-day life seems to be quite impossible without telephone, radio, and television. 2. Nowadays the principle of radio operation seems to be quite simple. 3. The term "radar" is known to be composed of the first letters of "radio, detection and ranging". It happens to reflect its basic principle, that is, the location of an object at a distance. 4. About 50 per cent of Lake Baikal water prove to have been polluted since the Baikal plant has begun its work. 5. Lasers appeared to be highly useful for solving the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction and communication. 6. A system of Earth satellites appears to have solved the problem of transmitting the central TV program to any part of the world. 7. Electricity proved to be able to travel instantly over a long piece of wire.
1. Dirigibles are likely to be used for taking tourists to distant and beautiful places. 2. Lasers are unlikely to be used in our everyday life soon. 3. Superconductivity is certain to brine about a new technological revolution.
Вправа 5. Прочитайте, запам'ятайте значення виділених слів:
A .: Do you know what the words either and neither mean?
В .: Yes, I do. Either means кожен, будь-який, будь-який з
двох, while neither stands for жоден, жоден (з)
A .: That's correct. Can you give examples?
В .: Yes I can.For example: There is a number of lecture
rooms on either side of the corridor. Which of these dictionaries can be used for translating a technica 1 article? You may use either.
A .: And in what way is either translated when it is used
with or? For instance: "Please, bring some dictionaries either from the library or from the reading room."
В .: Either ... or ... means або ... або, або ... або
A .: Now let us speak about neither, it is the negative form
of either, meaning ні той ... ні інший. For instance: I was offered two books, but I took neither of them, as I did not like them.
В .: And neither connected with nor means ні ... ні, for
example: These problems seemed difficult neither to my friend, nor to me.
A .: Are these words used in any other way?
В .: Yes, they may be used in short negative sentences such
as: "I do not like this book", said Peter, "Neither do I", said Ann, which means мені теж (не подобається). I shall not go to the library tomorrow. He will not go either він теж (не піде).
Вправа6. Визначте різні значення слів тозі и much в наступних реченнях:
1. One more present-day complicated problem to be solved is that of combining laser and thermonuclear reaction to produce a practically limitless source of energy. 2. A Japanese company is planning to install several more electronic devices on the car instrument panel. 3. The Voice Warning System is one more device. 4. If you make half-hour breaks while getting ready for your exams your brain will work much more efficiently. 5. Aerodynamics is one more problem to be taken into consideration when designing a hypersonic craft. 6. The wheel-computerized system is much more efficient than those used previously.
7. Cryogenic fuels used both as coolants and propellant make the solution of the superliner surface cooling problem much easier to solve.
8. The fact that dirigibles are much larger in size and their staying power is much longer than those of an aircraft makes them ideally suited for exploration.
Вправа 7.Знайдіть російські еквіваленти для наступних словосполучень:
the physics discoveries, discoveries that led to, the scientific advantage, advantage could well come to nation, to bring the mankind to, mercury wire, unexpected phenomenon, to return to normal state, by passing electric current, by applying magnetic field, to make a great contribution, they introduced a model, a model proved to be useful, a theory won for them the Nobel Prize, research in
superconductivity, research became especially active, the achieved record
of 23 K.
дослідження особливо активізувалися; дослідження в області надпровідності; теорія, за яку вони отримали Нобелівську премію; привести людство до ...; перевагу в науці; відкриття в галузі фізики; досягнута рекордна позначка в 23 К; відкриття, які привели до ...; перевага могла б отримати нація (країна); ртутна дріт; повернутися в звичайний стан; пропускаючи електричний струм; внести великий внесок; несподіване явище; вони запропонували (ввели) модель; прикладаючи магнітне поле; модель виявилася ефективною.
Вправа 8.Прочитайте і переведіть інтернаціональні слова:prestige [pres'ti: 3], nation [nei / еп], Nobel prize [ 'naubl praiz], absolute zero [' aebsalu: t 'ziarau], phenomenon [fi'nominan], normal, magnetic, electromagnetic, theory [ 9iari], theorists [ 'Qiarists], fundamental theory, physics, physicist, model [' madl], metallic [mi'taelik], ceramic [si'ramik], colleagues [ 'koli: gz], laboratory, critical temperature, fabricate , extremely [iks'trimli], process [ 'prausas].
Вправа 9. Прочитайте слова, звертаючи увагу на вимову:
latest [ 'leitest], spectacular [spekt'skjub], breakthrough [' breik'9ru:], compare [кет'рее], award [a'wad], research [ri'satj], mercury [Wkjuri], wire [ 'waia] below [bi'lau], 5 ° C [' faiv di'griz 'sentigreid], completely [кет'рН: Ш], return [ri'ta: n], either [' ai & a], finally [ ' fainali], Zurich [ 'zjuerrik], previousli [' pri: vpsli], throughout [ '8ru:' aut], liquid [likwid], nitrogen [ 'naitrad ^ n], lose [lu: z], moreover [то: 'геіуе], lack [kck].
Слова і словосполучення для запам'ятовування
achievement n - Досягнення present v - представляти
below adv- внизу previously adv - Раніше, попередньо
benifit n - Вигода, користь тельно
boil v - кипіти prominent а - Видатний, извест-
continue v- продовжувати ний
cool v - охолоджувати random а - безладний, випадкових
current п - електричний струм ний
discover v - відкривати, обнару- resistivity п - питомий опору
finally adv- нарешті return v- повертатися
introduce v- вводити satisfactory a - Прийнятний, удов-
lack v - потребувати летворітельний
likely adv - ймовірно suddenly adv - Раптом, раптово
lose v - втрачати sufficiently adv - достатньо
master v-опановувати tend v - прагнути, мати тен-
moreover adv - Більш того денцию
pass v - пропускати wire n - дріт
either ... or - або ..., або; або або ,"
at once - відразу, негайно that is (i.e.) - тобто
Прочитайте текст. Розкажи, про основні етапи розвитку надпровідності і про тих вчених, які внесли свій вклад в дослідження надпровідності.
According to the prominent scientist in this country V. L. Ginzburg the latest world achievements in the field of superconductivity mean a revolution in technology and industry. Recent spectacular breakthroughs1 in superconductors may be compared with the physics discoveries that led to electronics and nuclear power. They are likely to bring the mankind to the threshold of a new technological age. Prestige, economic and military benefits could well come to the nation that first masters this new field of physics. Superconductors were once thought to be physically impossible. But in 1911 superconductivity was discovered by a Dutch physicist K.Onnes, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his low-temperature research. He found the electrical resistivity of a mercury wire to disappear suddenly when cooled below a temperature of 4 Kelvin (-269 ° C). Absolute zero is known to be 0 K. This discovery was a completely unexpected phenomenon. He also discovered that a superconducting material can be returned to the normal state either by passing a sufficiently large current through it or by applying a sufficiently strong magnetic field to it. But at that time there was no theory to explain this.
For almost 50 years after K.Onnes 'discovery theorists were unable to develop a fundamental theory of superconductivity. In 1950 physicists Landau and Ginsburg made a great contribution to the development of superconductivity theory. They introduced a model which proved to be useful in understanding electromagnetic properties of superconductors. Finally, in тисяча дев'ятсот п'ятьдесят-сім a satisfactory theory was presented by American physicists, which won for them in тисячі дев'ятсот сімдесят два the Nobel Prize in physics. Research in superconductors became especially active since a discovery made in +1986 by IBM scientists in Zurich. They found a metallic ceramic compound to become a superconductor at a temperature well above the previously achieved record of 23 K.
It was difficult to believe it. However, in тисяча дев'ятсот вісімдесят сім American physicist Paul Chug informed about a much more sensational discovery: he and his colleagues produced superconductivity at an unbelievable before temperature 98 К in a special ceramic material. At once in all leading laboratories throughout the world superconductors of critical temperature 100 К and higher (that is, above the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen) were obtained. Thus, potential technical uses of high temperature superconductivity seemed to be possible and practical. Now some scientists are trying to find a ceramic that works at room temperature. But getting superconductors from the laboratory into production will be no easy task. While the new superconductors are easily made, their quality is often uneven. Some tend to break when produced, others lose their superconductivity within minutes or hours. All are extremely difficult to fabricate into wires. Moreover, scientists lack a full understanding of how ceramics become superconductors. This fact makes developing new substances largely a random process. This is likely to continue until theorists give a fuller explanation of how superconductivity is produced in the new materials.
Notes to the Text
1. spectacular breakthroughs - захоплюючі відкриття, досягнення (переворот)
2. IBM - компанія Ай Біі Емм
3. well above - набагато вище
Вправа10. Перегляньте текст ПА і дайте відповідь на питання: 1. What is this text about? 2. What is the phenomenon of superconductivity? 3. Who was the first to discover the phenomenon? 4. What scientists do you know who have worked in the field of superconductivity? 5. What materials are the best superconductors? 6. Is it possible to return superconducting materials to the normal state? 7. How can it be done? 8. In what fields of science and technology can the phenomenon of superconductivity be used?
Вправа П.Вкажіть, які твердження відповідають змісту тексту 11 А. Неправильні затвердження виправте:
1. The latest achievements in superconductivity mean a revolution in technology and industry. 2. Superconductors were once thought to be physically impossible. 3. The achievements in superconductivity can not be compared with the discoveries that led to electronics and nuclear power. 4. The electrical resistively of a mercury wire disappears when cooled below 4 K. 5. A superconductivity material can not be returned to the normal state. 6. Landau and Ginsburg introduced a model which was useful in understanding electromagnetic properties of superconductors. 7. Scientists from IBM found a ceramic material that became a superconductor at a temperature of 23 K. 8. Potential
technical uses of high temperature superconductivity are unlikely to be possible and practical.
Вправа 12.Знайдіть в тексті 11Л інфінітівние конструкції.
Вправа 13.Порівняйте наступні пари пропозицій і переведіть: 1. Designers report a new manned craft to be able to submerge to the depth of 21,000 feet. A new manned craft is reported to be able to submerge to the depth of 21,000 feet. 2. We know radio navigation stations to be located at different places around the world to guide the pilots. Radio navigation stations are known to be located all over the world to guide the pilots. 3. People considered dirigibles to be too slow and unreliable, that is why they were not used for a long time. Dirigibles were considered to be slow and unreliable. 4. Experts expect the new submersible craft to move round the ocean floor like a sports car. The new submersible craft is expected to move round the ocean floor like a sports car. 5. Scientists in many countries consider propeller engines to be much more economical. Propeller engines are considered much more economical. 6. We know propeller planes to fly slower than jet planes, therefore, a new ventilator engine with a propeller has been built. But as propeller planes are known to fly slower than jet planes a new ventilator engine with a propeller has been built.
Вправа 14.Знайдіть пропозиції зі складним підметом при глаголе-присудок вдійсній заставі, переведіть:
1. The phenomenon of superconductivity appears to have been discovered as early as 1911. 2. Before 1911 superconductivity was assumed to be impossible. 3. Recent discoveries in superconductivity made scientists look for new conducting materials and for practical applications of the phenomenon. 4. The latest achievements in the field of superconductivity are certain to make a revolution in technology and industry. 5. Recommendations from physicists will allow the necessary measures to be taken to protect the air from pollution. 6. Lasers are sure to do some jobs better and more economically than other devices. 7. M. Faraday supposed a light beam to reverse its polarization as it passed through a magnetized crystal. 8. Superconductors are likely to find applications we do not even think of at present. 9. A Dutch physicist found a superconducting material to return to normal state when a strong magnetic field was applied. 10. Properties of materials obtained in space prove to be much better than those produced on Earth. 11. There are prospects for lasers to be used in long distance communication and for transmission of energy to space stations. 12. The electrical resistively of a mercury wire was found to dissappear when cooled to -269 ° C. 13. Additional radio transmitters let the pilot make his approach to an airport by watching his flight instruments. 14. There seems to be a lot of alloys and compounds that become superconductors under certain conditions.
Вправи для самостійної роботи
Вправа 15.Визначте, до якої частини мови відносяться наступні похідні слова:
resistant, resist, resistance, resistor, resistively; superconductivity, superconductive, superconductor, superconducting; theory, theorist, theoretical, theories; physics, physicist, physical, physically; explain, explainable, explanation; store, storage, storable.
Вправа 16.Знайдіть англійське слово, еквівалентну заданому:
досягнення - achievable, achievement, achieve; електронний - electronics, electronic, electron; легше - easily, easy, easier; задовольняти - satisfy, satisfactory, satisfaction; дійсно - reality, realize, really.
Вправа 17.Переведіть слова з суфіксом -ward, -wards, обозначающем напрямок:
toward (s), forward (s), backward (s), afterward (s), downward (s), outward (s), northward (s), southward (s), rearward (s), homeward (s), sideward (s), windward (s).
Вправа 18.Знайдіть слова з нестандартним освітою множини:
There are a few words taken over from Latin and Greek that still retain their original plurals in English. In some cases we can use either. Formulas is seen more often than formulae. Antenna - Antennae (pi). Many think that media, strata and phenomena are all singular. They are not. Data, a plural, is used both ways.
Here are some foreign singular and plural forms of words often used in English. Latin: medium (a means of mass communication) -media, nucleus (ядро атома) - nuclei; Greek: analysis - analyses; axis - axes; crisis - crises; hypothesis - hypotheses; phenomenon -phenomena.
Вправа 19-Знайдіть пари синонімів і антонімів:
below - above; useful - useless; easy - difficult; field - sphere; to meet demands - to meet requirements (needs); full - complete; to use - to apply; to get - to obtain; moreover - besides; sufficient -enough; likely - unlikely; to continue - to discontinue; conductivity -no conductivity; to vary - to change; to lead to - to result in; recent -latest; advantage - disadvantage; low - high; believable - unbelievable; to lose - to find; tiny - huge; liquid - solid; unexpected - expected; common - ordinary.
Вправа 20Запам'ятайте виділені слова і словосполучення: 1. The climate in this part of the world is the most suitable for people to live in. It is neither too hot, nor too cold. 2. Many lasers give off invisible radiation either infrared or ultraviolet. 3. There is
the tropical zone on eitherside of the Equator. 4. It is possible to divide all countries intoclasses: developed and developing countries. Various criteria maybe used to include a particular country in either of the twocategories. 5.The numbers are eitherodd oreven. 6. Such satellites can contain eithertelevision cameras or photographic equipment for transmittingof pictures to the Earth.
"I see you are nota scientific person, my friend ".
"Why do you say that?"
Переведіть текст. | Прочитайте текст. Використовуючи слова і вирази з тексту, опишіть свій стан перед іспитом. | Einstein had no such difficulty: he would break off and go sailing or play violin - not very well, he said, but it was very comforting. | Manufacturer. The revolution in industry made ... this machine was extremely great. | Passengers. 2 The project of such an aircraft was 2. a speed five to six times above the displayed at speed of sound. | Text 8B | Прочитайте текст. | If he had known about the lecture, he would have come. Had he known about the lecture he would have come. | Вправа 20. Знайдіть пропозиції з спілками before і after. | What do you think about it? Why? |