Useful Words and Phrases of Scientific Communication at a scientific meeting, conference, round-table discussion, symposium, colloquium, seminar, session, congress, etc.
Exercise 6. Read and smile:
A Story Too Terrible To Tell
Three men came to New York for the first time. They took a room in a hotel. In the evening they went sight-seeing and did not come back till nearly three in the morning. The room they had taken was on the 43-d floor. "I am sorry, gentlemen", said the porter, "but the elevator does not work, there is something wrong with it. You will have to walk up to your room". This was too bad, but the men agreed to tell stories on the way up in order to kill the time.
By the time the first one had told his story, they had climbed up to the 11-th floor. The next story kept them amused till they had reached the 31-st floor. At last it was time for the third man to tell his story, but he refused. He said the story he had in mind was too terrible, he simply could not tell it. They continued climbing and all the time the two asked him to begin. At last they stopped and refused to go on unless he told them his terrible story. "The story I have to tell you is a short one", he said at last, "we have left the key to our room downstairs with the porter".
Прочитайте текст і знайдіть інформацію про переваги застосування оптичних волокон в техніці зв'язку; про те, що послужило основою розробки систем оптичного зв'язку, а також про практичне застосування оптичної технології. Зіставте відмічені в тексті факти з наведеними нижче датами: 1960 1970, 1982 років. Викладіть цю інформацію англійською:
One of the most interesting developments in telecommunication is the rapid progress of optical communication where optical fibers are replacing conventional telephone wires and cables. Just as digital technologies greatly improved the telephone system, optical communication promises a considerable increase in capacity, quality, performance and reliability of the global telecommunication network. New technologies such as optical fibers will increase the speed of telecommunication and provide new, specialized information service. Voice, computer data, even video images, will be increasingly integrated into a single digital communication network capable to process and transmit virtually any kind of information.
It is a result of combining two technologies: the laser, first demonstrated in 1960 and the fabrication 10 years later of ultra-thin silicon fibres which can serve as lightwave conductors. With the further development of very efficient lasers plus continually improved techniques to produce thin silica fibres of incredible transparency, optical systems can transmit pulses of light as far as 135 kilometers without the need for amplification or regeneration.
At present high-capacity optical transmission systems are being installed between many major US cities at a rapid rate. The system most widely used now operates at 147 megabits (thousand bits) per second and accomodates 6,000 circuits over a single pair of glass fibres (one for each direction of transmission). This system will soon be improved to operate at 1.7 gigabits (thousand million bits) per second and handle 24,000 telephone channels simultaneously.
A revolution in information storage is underway with optical disk technology. The first optical disks appeared in the early 1970-s. They were and are used to record videofilms, but in a continuous spiral rather than digitally.
The first digital optical disks were produced in 1982 as compact disks for music. They were further developed as a storage medium for computers. The disks are made of plastics coated with aluminium. The information is recorded by using a powerful laser to imprint bubbles on the surface of the disk. A less powerful laser reads back the pictures, sound or information. An optical disk is almost indestructible and can store about 1000 times more information than a plastic disk of the same size.
The latest optical disk development is a system which enables computer users to record their own information on a glass or plastic disk coated with a thin film of tellurium. Such a disk can store 200 megabytes (200 million characters).
Besides, it is reported that an optical equivalent of a transistor has been produced and intensive research on optical electronic computers is underway at a number of US companies as well as in countries around the world.
It is found that optical technology is cost-effective and versatile. It finds new applications every day - from connecting communication equipment or computers within the same building or room to longdistance transcon-tinental, transoceanic and space communications.
Прочитайте текст і розкажіть про практичне застосування лазерів. An Encyclopedia on a Tiny Crystal
Scientists have discovered that a laser beam can be effectively used to record alphanumeric data and sound on crystals. According to Russian researchers a method for recording information on crystals by means of a laser has already been developed, but advanced technologies are needed to make it commercially applicable.
At present researchers are looking for the most suitable chemical compounds to be used as data storages and trying to determine optimum recording conditions. Theoretically, the entire "Great Soviet Encyclopedia" can be recorded on a single tiny crystal.
As far back as 1845 Michael Faradey discovered that a light beam reverses its polarization as it passes through a magnetized crystal. Scientists of our day have used this phenomenon to identify crystalline materials capable of storing information. Lasers have been successfully employed to record information on and read it off.
No ideal data storage crystal has yet been found, but it is obvious now that the future of computer engineering lies in lasers and optoelectronics. As paper gave way to magnetic tape, so the latter is to be replaced by tiny crystals.
Text 10 D
Прочитайте текст і знайдіть приклади все зростаючої тенденції до більш тісного міжнародного співробітництва. Чому така співпраця необхідно? Назвіть країни-учасниці такого співробітництва. Запам'ятайте вимова назв країн.
Science and International Cooperation
One of the most striking features of modern science is the increasing tendency towards closer cooperation between scientists and scientific organizations (institutions) all over the world. In fact, it is becoming more and more evident that many of the problems that affect the world today can not be solved without joining scientific efforts and material resources on a world-wide scale. The exploration of space, world finance, global environment protection problems and the development of new sources of power, such as atomic energy, are the examples of areas of scientific research which are so costly and
complicated that it is difficult for a single country to solve them efficiently and in a short period of time. The renewal of international scientific cooperation was demonstrated in the sharing of data which were obtained by Russian, Japanese and European space probes in +1986 on Halley's comet.
Many countries were successfully cooperating on a programme called Intercosmos and had already launched 23 Intercosmos satellites, 11 vertical geophysical rockets and a large number of satellites. Space exploration programmes are being conducted between Russia and Austria, India, France, Sweden and other countries. Joint manned flights by Russian and foreign cosmonauts included citizens from numerous countries. 12 international crews have worked in orbit and carried out more than 200 scientific experiments.
Everyone is interested in the possibility of Russia - USA cooperation in space exploration. Joint scientific ventures (програми) for the benefit of all mankind are a sign of mutual trust in human cooperation that can only strengthen peace. Space is our last frontier and we have the opportunity now to prevent it from becoming another source of conflict. If we began to establish a cooperative relationship in space today, this dream could become a reality. Russia and the United States can and must overcome their differences. It is necessary to understand that a state of permanent animosity (ворожнеча) is not constructive for either side. There is no doubt that improved relations between these countries and cooperation, especially in the latest technology will continue to develop for the benefit of all mankind. Having obtained the enormous power of nuclear weapons to destroy the world, we have no longer an alternative.
Складне підмет і складне доповнення
Значення слів either, neither і їх поєднань
Text 11A. Superconductivity
Text ПС. New Hope for Energy
Text 1 ID. Massachusettes Institute of Technology
ВправаI. Переведіть пропозиції зі складним доповненням: 1. We know Morse to have been a painter by profession. 2. Scientists expect lasers to solve the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction. 3. M. Faraday supposed a beam of light to reverse its polarization as it passed through a magnetized crystal. 4. Designers expect dirigibles to be used for exploration of new territories. 5. Japanese designers believe a new ceramic engine to replace the conventional one. 6 Engineers suppose a new "night vision" system to enable drivers to see better after dark. 7. Scientists believe new laser devices to be widely used in medicine. 8. We know the first digital optical disks to have been produced in 1 982 as disks for music.
Вправа 2. Знайдіть інфінітив в наступних пропозиціях, переведіть їх:
1. Hundreds of radio navigation stations watch the airplanes find their destination and land safely. 2. Twice a year people see birds fly south and north, but we do not know how they find their way. 3. At the Paris Exhibition people watched the cargo airplane "Ruslan" carry a great amount of cargo. 4. When you stand near a working engine you feel it vibrate. 5. Making experiments with electric telegraph Morse noticed a pencil make a wavy line when connected to an electric wire. 6. Nowadays people watch over television cosmonauts work in space, "Lunohod" move on the surface of the Moon and Olympic games on the other side of the globe.
1. A force applied to a body causes it to move in a straight line. 2. The unsatisfactory results of Bell's experiments forced him to change the method of testing. 3. The excellent properties of Damascus steel made metallurgists of the whole world look for the. lost secret of the steel. 4. Very high temperatures often cause certain materials to break.
5. Bad weather conditions make pilots switch over to automatic control.
Причастя | Переведіть текст. | Прочитайте текст. Використовуючи слова і вирази з тексту, опишіть свій стан перед іспитом. | Einstein had no such difficulty: he would break off and go sailing or play violin - not very well, he said, but it was very comforting. | Manufacturer. The revolution in industry made ... this machine was extremely great. | Passengers. 2 The project of such an aircraft was 2. a speed five to six times above the displayed at speed of sound. | Text 8B | Прочитайте текст. | If he had known about the lecture, he would have come. Had he known about the lecture he would have come. | Вправа 20. Знайдіть пропозиції з спілками before і after. |