Transport for Tomorrow
One thing is certain about the public transport of the future: it must be more efficient than it is today.The time is coming when it will be quicker to fly across the Atlantic to New York than to travel from home to office.The two main problems are: what vehicle shall we use and how can we plan our use of it?
There is already a number of modern vehicles which are not yet in common use, but which may become a usual means of transport in the future. One of these is the small electric car: we go out into the street, find an empty car, get into it, drive to our destination, get out and leave the car for the next person who comes along. In fact, there may be no need to drive these cars. With an automatic guidance system for cars being developed, it will be possible for us to select
our destination just as today we select a telephone number, and our car will move automatically to the address we want.
For long journeys in private cars one can also use an automatic guidance system. Arriving at the motorway, a driver will select the lane1 he wishes to use, switch over to automatic driving, and then relax - dream, read the newspaper.have a meal, flirt with his passenger -while the car does the work for him. Unbelievable? It is already possible. Just as in many ships and aircraft today we are piloted automatically for the greater part of the journey, so in the future we can also have this luxury in our own cars.
A decade ago, the only thing electronic on most automobiles was the radio. But at present sophisticated electronics is playing a big part in current automotive research. For example, in every gasoline-powered car that General Motors Corporation makes there is a small computer continuously monitoring the exhaust.The device, about the size of a pack of cigarettes, adjusts the vehicle carburetor fuel intake to get the best fuel economy. Ford cars are equipped with an electronic instrument panel that.among other things, will calculate how far one can drive on the fuel left in the tank. It also will estimate the time of arrival at destination and tell the driver what speed he has averaged since turning on the ignition.
According to specialists these features made possible by microelectronics are only the beginning. Radar may control the brakes to avoid collisions, and a display screen may show the car's position on the road. Recently a radar to be mounted on lorries and cars has been designed in the USA. The radar aerial looks like a third headlight placed directly above the bumper. Having summed up the information about the speed and distance of various objects ahead, the computer detects all possible dangers and their nature. A third component in the system is a monitor on the instrument panel. The radar only observes objects ahead of the vehicle. It is automatically turned on when the speed exceeds ten miles an hour. The green light on the panel indicates that the system is on. The yellow light warns of stationary objects ahead, or something moving slower than the car. The red light and buzzer warn that the speed should go down. Another red light and sound signal make the driver apply the brakes.
A Japanese company is designing a car of a new generation which will start running on the roads in the 90s. When completed, the new model will have a lot of unusual characteristics. The car's four-wheel control system will ensure movement diagonally and even sideways, like a crab, at right angles to the longitudinal axis. This is especially important when leaving the car in parking places. To help the driver get information while concentrating on the road the most important data will be projected on the wind screen. A tourist travelling in such a car will not lose his way even in Sahara with its impassible roads: a navigation Earth satellite will indicate the route.
A new ceramic engine has been developed in Japan. Many important parts as pistons, pressure rings, valves and some others have been made of various ceramic materials, piston rings made of silicon materials being in many respects better than those of steel. They withstand temperatures up to 1,000 ° C. Therefore, the engine does not need a cooling system.
Notes to the Text
2. gasoline-powered - з бензиновим двигуном
3. fuel intake - впорскування палива
4. among other things - крім усього іншого
5. what speed he has averaged - яка була його середня швидкість
6. pressure ring - кільце ущільнювача
7. piston ring - поршневі кільця
Вправа 15.Перегляньте текст 7А і дайте відповідь иа питання: 1. What is the text about? 2. What kind of a car may be in common use in the nearest future? 3. How will a public electric car operate? 4. How will it operate on a motorway? 5. What electronic devices are there in a modern car? 6. What electronic devices does General Motors Corporation offer for a car? 7. What electronic devices have Ford cars? 8. Can a radar be used in a car? What will its functions be? 9. What functions will a Japanese car of new generation have? 10. What materials do the Japanese offer to use for car motors?
Вправа 16.Вкажіть, які з наступних тверджень відповідають змісту тексту 7А:
1. An automatic guidance system was developed for the electric car. 2. Small electric cars are in common use. 3. Many ships and aircrafts are piloted automatically for the greater part of the journey. 4. Usually having arrived at a motorway a driver switches over to automatic control and relaxes. 5. A decade ago there were many electronic things in the cars. 6. There is no future for microelectronics in automobiles. 7. Recently a radar to be mounted on lorries and cars was designed in the USA. 8. A new ceramic engine has been developed in France.
Вправа 17.Знайдіть в тексті 7А причастя у функціях визначення і обставини (див. 3, 5 і 6-й абзаци), незалежні причетні обороти (див. 2-й і 7-й абзаци).
Вправа18. Знайдіть в наступних пропозиціях причастя, переведіть:
1. Studying Newton's work "Principia" a young physicist discovered a mistake in the calculations. 2. Having designed a car radar the
engineers started complex tests. 3. While driving a car one should be very attentive. 4. A new electronic instrument will calculate how far one can drive on the fuel left in the tank. 5. The engine tested showed that it needed no further improvement. 6. Scientists are experimenting with a system allowing drivers to see better after dark. 7. The system being tested will increase the safety and fuel efficiency of a car.
8. Having been tested the computer system was installed at a plant.
9. The night-vision system designed will be available in the 1990's.
10. The synthetic magnet has a lot of valuable qualities that can be
Вправа 19.Знайдіть пропозиції з незалежним причетним оборотом, переведіть:
1. The first engines appeared in the 17-th century and people began using them to operate factories, irrigate land, supply water to towns, etc. 2. The steam engine having been invented in 1825 a self-propelled vehicle was built. 3. The supply of steam in the car lasting only 15 minutes, the vehicle had to stop every 100 yards to make more steam. 4. After the German engineer N. Otto had invented the gasoline engine, the application of this engine in motor cars began in many countries. 5. The cars at that time were very small, the engine being placed under the seat. 6. Motorists had to carry a supply of fuel, because there were no service stations. 7. Brakes having become more efficient, cars achieved greater reliability. 8. Cars with internal combustion engines having appeared, the automobile industry began developing rapidly. 9. By 1960 the number of cars in the world had reached 60 million.no other industry having ever developed so quickly.
Вправи для самостійної роботи
Вправа20. Визначте, до яких частин мови належать такі слова:
dangerous, automotive, longitudinal, automatically, present, nature,
motorist, enrol, enrolment, guidance, average, current, ignition,
diagonally, calculate, impossible, graduate, village, public, garage,
Вправа 21.Переведіть слова, з огляду на значення суфікса -erl-pr: driver, sensor, starter, monitor, microprocessor, detector, transistor, carburetor, user, transmitter, lecturer, generator.
Вправа 22. Назвіть похідні слова від наступних дієслів:
navigate, generate, stimulate, estimate, innovate, investigate, regulate.
Вправа 23.Напишіть вихідну форму, по якій потрібно шукати такі слова в словнику:
companies, easier, accordingly, better, creating, biggest, cried.
Вправа 24.Згрупуйте з наступних слів пари
regulate, modern, want, select, use, current, wish, average, adjust, choose, mean, apply;
unbelievable, cooling, continuous, passable, heating, believable, discontinuous, impassable.
Вправа 25.Запам'ятайте значення слова since:
1. Since 1770 there were many brilliant inventions in the automobile industry. 2. The progress of motor cars in Great Britain was stopped since there were severe speed limits. 3. In early days many of the cars broke since transmissions were still unreliable and often went out of operation. 4. Since conventional headlights are not very effective, a new system has to be developed. 5. Since the French engineer Gugnot invented the first self-propelled vehicle in 1770 the automobile industry developed very rapidly. 6. The number of chemical elements known to science has grown considerably since Mendeleyev created his Periodic Table in тисяча вісімсот сімдесят одна.
Вправа26. Запам'ятайте значення слова too перед прикметником: 1. The task is too difficult for them. 2. The size of the device is too big now. 3. The difference in temperatures was too great. 4. The old system is too complicated. 5. A sensor mechanism for a car is too large at present.
Вправа 27. Запам'ятайте значення слова future, further:
1. In future it will be possible to use more channels on every TV set via satellite and cable TV. 2. Scientists throughout the world were quick to realize the importance of radio and contributed much to its further development. 3. The subjects that the students study in the first and the second years are very important for their future speciality. 4. The use of computers in cars is a further step in improving safety on the road.
Вправа 28. Заповніть пропуски словами only або the only: 1. The Earth is ... planet having liquid water. 2. It is useful to remember that the industrial revolution began ... at the end of the
18-th century. 3 ..... way to achieve good results is to apply one's
knowledge to practical work. 4. The revolution in science and technology affects not ... economically developed countries, but also developing countries. 5. Multi-cylinder engines came into use ... after World War 1.
The motor carhas not ... brought mobility to millions of people, but also has pollutedthe atmosphere. 7. Weightlessness can be created on Earth, but ... fora few seconds. 8 .... requirement for plastic steel is that it mustbe rich in carbon. 9. The Library of Congress serves not ... toMembers of the Congress, but also to libraries throughout theUS and the world.
Вправа 29.Заповніть пропуски формами дієслова to have (has, have, had, has not, have not, had not):
"I ... a good car for sale. It ... many extra parts. It ... a good speedometer and fournew tires. It ... a new spare (запасна) tire too. ""... itits original ратКкраска)? "" No, it., its original paint. It ... newpaint on it. It looks new. "" I .... a good offer for it yesterday, but theman ... very little cash. I want cash (готівка). "" ... ita good engine? "" Yes, it ... an excellent engine. It ... any weak places in it.Engines that ... weak places in them are always in the garage. "" I... An idea you will sell your car. "" I ... two good offers yesterday.One man ... all cash. But he does not look like an honest man. I ... nodesire to do business with him. "
Вправа 30.Замініть підрядні речення причетним оборотом: 1. While Boris was driving home he saw an accident. 2. After we had talked withPeter we felt much better. 3. When John arrived at the stationhe saw the train leave. 4. After he had left the house he walkedto thenearest metro station.
5. When I lookedout the window I saw Mary coming. 6. As we finished our partof the work we were free to go home. 7. As Ann hadhad notime to write us a letter she sent a telegram.
Вправа 31.Дайте відсутні форми наступних i ла голвін, запам'ятайте їх:
driven, learning, said, setting, buy, ridden.
Вправа 32.Прочитайте і переведіть без словника:
A new vacuum-controlled constant velocity carburetor developed by an American company offers several advantages over ordinary carburetors, including25 per cent gasoline economy, improved engine performance and easier starting. The device having only 54 parts compared withsome 300 in conventional carburetors has no choke (дросель). It constanty adjusts the mixture of fuel and air, which can notbe done in usual carburetors. Provided with special mechanism the carburetorhelps the engine turn on at once in cold weather. Thoughdeveloped quite recently it is already being used by cars and other kindsof public transport, "With diesel engine becoming almost standardequipment, the vacuurn carburetor will never be used on new cars. Itmay be said that present-day carburetors are a dinosaur and
in 20 years there will not be any more. But there are some countrieswhich are interested in importing the device as a replacement forexisting carburetors.
Exercise I. Answer the questions:
1. What are the main problems of public transport? (a new typeof vehicle and its much more efficient use) 2. What type of modernvehicle may become a usual means of transport in the future? (A smallelectric car) 3. What is the possible development in private cars? (The use of an automatic guidance system) 4. What electric devices are used in modern cars? (A computer, fuel adjusting devices, electronic instrument panel for indicating the speed, time, distance covered and fuel left) 5. What is the main function of a radar for a car? (detectingall possible dangers ahead of the vehicle on a road) 6. What unusualfeature will a new generation car have? (Four-wheel control systemensuring diagonal and side movement) 7. What materials are used incurrent automotive design? (Ceramics)
Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts:
1. goes out into the street, finds an empty car, gets into it, drives to his destination, gets out and leaves the car for the next passenger.
2. there may be no need to drive these cars.
3. which may become a usual means of transport in the future.
4. increasingly wide use of modern microelectronics in cars.
5. many problems of public transport.
6. an important part in current car design.
7. to switch over to automatic driving, as we do in ships and aircrafts today.
Exercise 3. Read and learn:
Bob's New Used Car
John: This is the car that Bob bought from M. Adams.
Bill: I did not even know that he had bought a car. When did he
tell you that he had bought it?
В: Do you know how much he paid for the car?
J .: Well, he said he had paid 800 dollars for it.
В .: I wonder why he bought an old car? I did not think he needed
В .: Do you think the car is in good condition?
J .: He told me that the car was in perfect condition. The tires
are practically new. The new generator works perfectly.
Frankly (відверто кажучи) I think that it was a good
bargain (вигідна покупка, хороша угода).
J .: I have not mentioned that the car had been driven only 25,000
miles. Also, the covers (чохли) which are on the front seats
are new. They are made of material that can be washed.
J .: O.K. Let's ask Bob when he is going for a ride. Then we can
see whether or not the car runs well.
J .: Yes, I'm sure he'll be back right away (cpa3y, негайно).
В .: By the way (між іншим), can you tell me where Bob is
keeping his car?
Exercise 4. Speak about:
1. Public transport of the future.
2. The application of electronics in modern cars.
3. The latest innovations in car design.
Use exercises 1,2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: one thing is certain, to be much more efficient, to be in common use, to select a destination, to monitor, the size of a pack of cigarettes, to look like, to warn of objects ahead of the vehicle, to design, to get information, while driving, to make of.
Exercise 5. Comment on the following statement:
It is natural that everybody should want to have a car.
One point of view: It is convenient, saving time, avoiding crowded buses and other city transport, independent, comfortable, useful at week-ends, contact with nature, developing the sense of responsibility, improving the level of technological culture.
A contrary point of view: Expensive, traffic jams (пробки в вуличному русі), difficulties with repairs and maintenance, pollution, lack of physical exercise, takes more time than it saves, road accidents, waste of energy resources, the unbearable situation in many cities, especially in supercities.
Exercise 6. Read and smile:
On the Bus
It was during the rush-hour (години пік). As usual, all the seats in the bus were occupied. When a good-looking young lady got in, an
elderly man sitting near the door wanted to rise, but the lady at once pressed him to keep his seat. "Thank you", she said, "I do not mind standing." "But, madam, permit me ...". "I insist upon your sitting down," she stopped him, and putting her hands on his shoulders she almost forced him back into his seat.
The man tried again to stand up and said, "Madam, will you allow me to ..." But once more the lady said, "I do not wish to take your seat, sir!" and forced him back with another push.
With a great effort the man finally pushed her aside. "Madam, he called out." I do not care whether you take my seat or not. The bus has already taken me two stops beyond my destination, and now I wish to get out. "
A good-looking lady-motorist was speeding through the sleepy village when a policeman stepped out on the road in front of her and forced her to stop. "What have I done?" she asked. "You were travelling forty miles an hour," replied the policeman. "Forty miles an hour!" cried the lady-motorist in surprise, "I have left my house only 20 minutes ago."
Прочитайте текст і заповніть таблицю, користуючись інформацією з тексту:
Використовуючи таблицю, розкажіть по-англійськи про наиболе важливих удосконалень в конструкції автомобіля з моменту його винаходу. Про які останні досягнення в області конструювання автомобілів ви знаєте?
Вибачте за тимчасові незручності в тексті найцікавіша з вашої точки зору і чому?
Car of Future
Ever since Nicolas Cugnot, a Frenchman, invented the first self-propelled road vehicle in 1770 there has been no shortage of companies willing to make a better automobile. Over years their efforts have given users the gasoline engine (дизель), the electric starter, tubeless »tires (беськамерная шина), fuel-injected engines and anti-lock brakes (гальмо з антиблокувальною пристроєм), these are only a few innovations. What is next? Here are some examples of what the car designers are working at in the world today.
Engineers are experimenting with a state-of-art (новітній) system that enables drivers to see better after dark. This "night vision" system uses infrared sensors that can detect a human figure at night more than 1,600 feet away. That's five times the distance at which conventional headlights are effective. The sensors pick up infrared rays emitted by any object that gives off heat. An image-processing system scans the information from the sensors, creating different images for different objects. The images are then displayed on a cathode - ray screen built-in a car's instrument panel. It is like black-and-white photograph of an object ahead. And the system is passive, which means no lights are needed to illuminate the object in front of the vehicle. But the biggest problem will be reducing costs and the other one is the size of the sensor mechanism which is too big now.
One of the latest applications of sophisticated electronics is the wheel-computerized system that not only monitors air pressure in automobile tires but adjusts it automatically. This system in addition enables a driver to set tire pressure while seated. The system developed consists of three separate modules. The first is the instrument panel display which houses the system's main microprocessor, programming buttons (кнопка включення програми) and warning signals. The second component is the detector drive module (модуль приводу) which is essentially four microchips attached, in one unit, to the chassis. Each chip detecting pressure changes that may occur, the transistors within the module signal the third component - a programmable transducer (програмований перетворювач).
The transducer attached to each wheel changes the tire pressure accordingly. However, some automobile experts think this system is too complicated and costly. The design has to be simple and of low cost.
Прочитайте. Розкажіть по-англійськи основний зміст тексту. Talking Instrument Panels
For a few years now some of the most advanced new automobiles have been equipped with instrument panels that can "speak" providing instrument readings or safety warnings from special electronic circuits.
In a polite female voice, the device will report on engine oil pressure, parking-brake and headlight operation, seat belt connection, totalling 14 different functions. The driver can even program the Voice Warning System to announce the time or to give a low-fuel warning for any preset gas tank level.
The heart of the Voice Warning System is a microprocessor-based electronic speech module made by National Semiconductor Corporation (US). The device requires the connection of 18 wires * but it is simpleenough to install in acar.
Notes to the Text | Упражненіе18. Знайдіть синоніми і антоніми:. | He read all the books about sound that he could find and started to work on some of his own experiments. | TEXT 4D | визначення | Наприклад: The experiments which Popov made were discussed at the University meeting. The experiments Popov made were discussed at the University meeting. | During the course of study students carry out practical work in | Прочитайте текст і прокоментуйте його заголовок. Чи правий автор, давши такий заголовок? Знайдіть в тексті відповідні факти. Переведіть текст. | Вправа 16. Знайдіть у другому абзаці тексту 5А бессоюзное определительное підрядне речення і переведіть його. | Прочитайте текст і розкажіть про новий спосіб підвищення пластичності і зносостійкості різального інструменту з композиційної кераміки. |