Advanced ceramic materials have such interesting properties that mechanical engineers are becoming more and more interested in their use as structural parts (конструкційні деталі).
Ceramic cutting tools have been in use for some time. However, it is only during the last twenty years that there have been rapid
development in this field because of the development of new composite ceramics.
Composite materials are materials in which two or more different substances, such as metals, ceramics, glasses, or polymers are combined without chemical reaction. As a result one can produce a material with properties different from those of any of the individual constituents. The constituents of a composite would retain their individual characteristics.
Recently engineers have developed various kinds of composite ceramics which must combine an increased toughness (пластичність) with the same hardness and strength of usual ceramics. A promising recent development is the addition of a tiny quantity of metal to increase toughness and tool life. Thus, at room and high temperatures (1000 ° C) the composite ceramics for cutting tools should possess the following properties: high strength, high toughness, high hardness, high thermal shock resistance and high chemical inertness.
Прочитайте текст, виділіть цікаві для вас факти і розкажіть по-англійськи. Ancient Steel-Making Secret
When two metallurgists at Standford University were trying to produce a "superplastic" metal they became interested in the secret of Damascus steel, the legendary material used by numerous warriors (воїни) of the past, including Crusaders (хрестоносці). Its formula had been lost for generations.
Analyses of a new steel revealed properties almost identical to those they found in Damascus steel, although their own plastic steel had been produced by present-day methods.
The remarkable characteristics of Damascus steel became known to Europe when the Crusaders reached the Middle East in the 11th century. They discovered that swords (меч) of the metal could split (розсікти) a feather (перо) in air and at the same time retain their edge sharp through many battles.
The secrets of Damascus steel were known in many parts of the ancient world, especially in Persia, where some of the finest specimens were produced. For eighj centuries the Arab sword makers kept the secret about their techniques and methods. And with the invention of firearms (вогнепальна зброя), the secret was lost and it was never fully rediscovered.
The two metallurgists carried out a lot of researches. When they realized that they might be close to the discovery of a new material, a sword fancier (знавець), at one of their demonstrations, pointed out that Damascus steel, like their own product, was very rich in carbon. This led them to conduct a comparative analysis of their steel and
those of the ancient weapons. As a result, it was found that a basic requirement was a high carbon content. The two metallurgists believed it had to be from 1 per cent to 2 per cent, compared to only a part of 1 per cent in ordinary steel. Their research showed how to make steel of even greater hardness than Damascus steel.
Прочитайте текст. Розкажіть по-англійськи, чим примітний читальний зал Бібліотеки Британського музею і які відділи є в Британському музеї.
The British Museum
The British Museum consisting of the National Museum of Archeology and Ethnography and the National Library is the largest and richest of its kind in the world. Built in the middle of the last century it is situated in central London which consists of quiet squares and streets.
The British Museum was founded by Act of Parliament in тисяча сімсот п'ятьдесят три to bring together the collection of Sir Robert Cotton, some others and future addition to them.
Anthony Panizzi designed the famous circular Reading Room at the British Museum.The first thing that strikes a visitor on entering the Reading Room is its unusual shape. It is a perfect circle. The superintendent (управитель) and his assistant sit in the centre of the room and they issue (видавати) and collect books. Long rows of reading desks radiate to the outer walls, like the spokes (спиці) of the wheel.
Many famous people have used the Reading Room at the British Museum. Of the many distinguished people who have used the Reading Room no one was perhaps more regular and more intent (цілеспрямований) than the German philosopher and socialist Karl Marx. Soon after he arrived in England in 1849 Marx became a daily visitor of the Reading Room, where he used to remain from nine in the morning till closing time.
The British Museum has a department of ethnography. Ethnograthy is concerned with primitive people and their cultures in various stages of development as revealed by their tools, ritual objects and various crafts (ремесло). This collection is so vast that only a tiny percentage is on show to the general public. Then there is a department of prints and drawings. There are also departments devoted to maps, coins and medals. Visitors interested in chronology can see a large collection of clocks and watches. Those who are interested in philately can find a magnificent collection of postage stamps.
Semester. 1 am sure that he (have) no language problem in the other countries when he (get) there. Many people in those countries (understand) English or French. | Він написав статтю про свою роботу. 3. Мене запитали, чи зробив я свою | Notes to the Text | Упражненіе18. Знайдіть синоніми і антоніми:. | He read all the books about sound that he could find and started to work on some of his own experiments. | TEXT 4D | визначення | Наприклад: The experiments which Popov made were discussed at the University meeting. The experiments Popov made were discussed at the University meeting. | During the course of study students carry out practical work in | Прочитайте текст і прокоментуйте його заголовок. Чи правий автор, давши такий заголовок? Знайдіть в тексті відповідні факти. Переведіть текст. |