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Упражненіе18. Знайдіть синоніми і антоніми:.

  1. B. Знайдіть до слів в колонці А антоніми з колонки В.
  2. III.3. СИНОНІМИ І МОВНА КУЛЬТУРА
  3. А) Знайдіть в тексті факти, які були вам вже відомі.
  4. Б) Знайдіть в тексті А пропозиції, в яких присудок виражені модальними дієсловами з інфінітивом в пасивному стані. Переведіть ці пропозиції.
  5. Лексичні синоніми, їх типи і роль в мові
  6. Знайдіть в кожному ряду синонім для виділеного слова,
  7. Знайдіть в тексті А умовні пропозиції і переведіть їх.

tiny - small; to dissappear - to appear; a lot of - many; different -various; next - following; short - long; to watch - to see; program - show; commonly - usually; less - more; possible - impossible; true - untrue; small - large; nowadays - at present, now; large - tremendous; advance -progress; to start - to begin; major - main; to report - to announce; to occur- to take place; convenient - suitable.

Вправа 19.Розмістіть валфавітному порядку наступні слова:

true, picture, telephone, communication; world, research, assembly, invention; own, beginning, telegraph, central; satellite, first, artificial, convenient; turn, videotape, transmit, size.

Вправа20. Назвіть перше по алфавітом слово в наступних парах слів:

concept / concert; complete / compare; invention / invasion; available / availability; commonly / commonless; commune / commit; compulsory / compunction.

Вправа 21.Напишіть вихідну форму, по якій потрібно шукати дане слово всловнику:

boxes, matches, beginning, tinier, owned, boundaries, possibly, replacing, less.

Вправа 22.Знайдіть в словнику відповідні значення для виділених слів: 1. The Japanese companies developed the first pocket-size colour television set. 2. Man first set foot on the Moon in July, 1969. 3. Special telephone sets are used at plants in tropical sea climate. 4. A great Russian scientist A.N.Krylov took an active part in the work of the first Atomic Jommission set up at the Optical Institute. 5. It was Popov who constructed the first radio set. 6. One of the global tasks nowadays is to set up solar power plants on high orbits. 7. Ships are equipped with radar sets helping them to orient at sea.

Вправа23. Знайдіть і запам'ятайте значення виділених слів: l.New directions of research in robotics were discussed at the last conference. 2. There is no direct connection between those processes. 3. This programm is directed toward the scientific study of various physico-chemical processes. 4. Our scientists must direct their attention to the


development of new technologies. 5. Further human progress is directly connected with the scientific and technological progress. 6. Oar task is to develop technological processes without a direct participation of man. 7. The future of mankind depends on the direction in which scientific and technological progress will be developing. 8. There is a direct communication between spacecrafts and the Earth, and between spacecrafts as well. 9. The directed research is being carried out to use underground hot water for heating houses.

Вправа 24.Поставте дієслово в дужкахв відповідній формі:

The Life of a Student

While I (walk) across the campus (університетське містечко) the other day, I (meet) my old friend Bill, whom I (see, not) since May. Naturally, we (stop) (talk) to each other for a few minutes. I asked him how he (do) in his classes this semester. He told me that he (take) a course in English this semester. He said that he (complete) the elementary course two semesters before, and by the next semester he (be) ready (take) the most difficult English course offered at this school. He also said that he (be) interested in getting his degree as soon as possible and he (ask, already) his advisor for permission to take the final examination. "I am glad (hear) that you (make) such good progress", I (say) to Bill. Then I asked him if he (can) tell me the secret of his success. He answered that the secret of his success (be) simple and he (study) at least two hours a day to improve his English.

After that I told Bill I (have) a little difficulty with my course in French at the moment. I said to him that I (study, not) very hard the last semester, but I (work) harder in the future.

Вправа 25. Прочитайте текст. Перекажіть його зміст, використовуючи непряму мову:

Albert Einstein liked the film with Charlie Chaplin. Once he wrote a letter to Chaplin:

"Everybody inJhe world understands your film" Golden Fever "(" Золота лихоманка "). You will become a great man by all means."

Chaplin's answer was:

"I like you even more. Nobody in the world understands your" Theory of Relativity "and you have already become a great man."

Вправа 26. Вкажіть відсутні форми дієслів, запам'ятайте їх:
 find, broke, putting, hung.
 ^ Вправа 27. Прочитайте і переведіть текст без словника:

S Recently it was reported in the press that the USA were trying to build

bigger, better and much more expensive TV sets. Experts declared that it was the most important change in television since the invention of colour


television. They informed that a new kind of television had images so clear that watching it was like looking through a window.

But it became known that Japanese specialists had started their work when nobody else in the world were thinking how to improve TV. The inventors expected that their standard for high-definition television would be used throughout the world. However, the Europeans have announced that they would set their own standard. And now it is not clear whether the Japanese standard will be used or not. Some people consider that a single high-definition TV standard will allow to exchange news and may bring nations together.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions:

1. What invention was the center of attention at the World Fair in New York in 1 939? (The first black-and-white television set).

2. What stopped the TV production? (World War II)

3. What influence has had television on people's life and way of thinking? (Great influence; boundaries of time and space have disappeared)

4. What kinds of TV exist now? (Satellite, cable, colour, digital and high-definition television).

5. What is the latest and the most important stage in the development of television since the appearance of colour television? (High definition

television).

6. What is the advantage of high definition television? (Its picture five
 times sharper compared to other kinds of television).

7. What are the main applications of HDTV? (Homes, industry,
 medicine, film production).

Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts:

1. The first black-and-white nine- 1. has been replaced by colour by-twelve inch TV sets television.

2. In a surprisingly short time 2. the development of TV became

digital television in which the usual signal is replaced by a digital code.

3. At present 3. were of historical importance in

1939.

4. Satellite and cable TV make it 4. television has had great influence posssible on people's life and way of thinking.

5. Recently black-and-white TV 5. is the most important stage in the

development of TV since the appearance of colour television.


6. The next major advance in 6. to watch TV programs in different

parts of the country and throughout the world.

7. The invention of high definition 7. there are different kinds of
 television with a picture resembling television systems: satellite, cable,
 a wide screen film colour, pocket-size, digital, high-
 definition television.

Exercise 3 Read and learn:

At the Telephone

Mr. Smith: Can I use your telephone for a long distance call? I could not find a pay phone in the building.

Mr.Wilson: Sure.

Mr. S .: My wife is going to meet me in New York tomorrow. I want to tell her what time the train gets in.

Mr. W .: Here you are. New York you can dial the number direct. Dial 2 and then the number.

Mr. S .: There's no answer. I'll call later.

Mr. W .: You can use the telephone any time you want.

Mr. S .: Direct distance dialing is wonderful, is not it?

Operator: Trunk-service (міжміський), number, please?

Mr. Jones: London Victoria 2884.1 say, operator, will you hurry it up

for me as I have a train to catch in a few minutes?
 0 .: Unless your number is engaged I can put you through

almost at once. I am sorry, sir, your number is engaged.

(After a few seconds.) I have got your number. Hold the

line, please. Mr. J .: Oh, it's you, Mary? MrsJones: Is it you, George, dear? How are you? So pleased to hear

your voice again! When are you going to come back?

 Mr. J: 0 .: Mr. J .:
 Mrs. J .: Mr. J .:
 Mrs. J .: Mr. J .:

I can not hear you, dear. Operator, will you try again.

I think that's better now.

Are you There? Is that you, Mary, dear? I say, can you hear

me?

Yes, dear, I can.

I shall be arriving at Waterloo Station at 5.40 this afternoon.

Will you come and meet me?

Certainly .darling.

There is something else I want to tell you.Get hold of Smith
 2 at the office.will you? Ask him to ring me up tomorrow in

8 the morning.

0 .: Your time is up. If you want to speak on drop another


sixpence, please. Mr.J: All right, dear, so long.

Exercise 4. Speak about:

1. The history of television development.

2. Future development of television.

Use exercise 1 and 2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: to be interested in; research; it is announced (reported) that; to solve problems; it became clear; compared to (with); to call; have an advantage; to find application in.

Exercise 5. Comment on the following statements:

1. Critics usually say that the young people are too passive and too lazy (ліниві) because they watch TV so much now.

2. We do not need the telephone, telegraph and television.

Exercise 6. Read and smile:

A Letter to a Sweetheart

A young man was writing a letter to his sweetheart (улюблена) who lived just a few miles away in a nearby town. He began to tell her how much he loved her and how wonderful he thought she was. But the more he wrote, the more poetical he became. Finally, he said that in order to be with her he would suffer the greatest hardshipsUmueHHH), he would face the greatest dangers (небезпека) that anyone could imagine. In facCfo spend only one minute with her, he would climb (підніматися) the highest mountain, he would swim the widest river, he would fight the fiercest (лютий) ariimals.He signed his name, and then suddenly remembered that he had forgotten to mention something rather important. So, in a postscript below his name, he added: "By the way, I'll be over to see you on Wednesday night - if it does not rain."

A Frenchman in England

A Frenchman was once travelling in England. He could speak English quite well but not perfectly. For one thing, his vocabulary was not large.

Once, for example, he was eating in a small country inn (готель) and he wanted to order some eggs. But he could not remember the word for eggs.

Suddenly, through the window, he saw a rooster (півень) walking in the yard. He immediately asked the waiter what the bird was called in English. . The waiter told him that it was called a rooster. The Frenchman then asked what the rooster's wife was called.The waiter told him that she was called a hen. The Frenchman then asked what the hen's children were called. The


waiter told him that they were called chickens.The Frenchman then asked what the chickens were called before they were born. The waiter told him that they were called eggs. "Fine!", Said the Frenchman, "Please bring me two plus a cup of coffee and some toast."

TEXT 4B

Прочитайте текст і знайдіть інформацію про те, в яких країнах вчені працювали над створенням телеграфного зв'язку, які труднощі зустрілися при цьому. Викладіть основний зміст тексту по-англійськи.

Telegraph

Benjamin Franklin, an American who is famous for his interesting and useful inventions, published his ideas about electricity in 1752. Scientists in many countries became interested in this wonderful form of energy. They wanted to find the answer to a very important question: could the electricity be used to develop a fast, efficient system of long-distance communication? Experiments proved that electricity could travel instantly over a very long piece of wire. But a note that was written on a piece of paper could not be put into a wire. How could electricity be used to send a message? A Danish scientist discovered that electricity could move a needle from left to right and that the needle could be pointed at letters on a piece of paper. Then a German government worker made up a code system that could be used with an electric needle. In 1837 two English scientists sent a message by electric telegraph for a distance of more than 1.6 kilometers.

Samuel Morse, an American portrait painter.was experimenting with an electric telegraph too. At first he connected a pencil to an electric wire. When the electricity came through the wire the pencil made wavy lines. Then Morse invented a code that used dots and dashes for the letters of the alphabet. Finally, he discovered that telegraph messages did not have to be written, they could be sent in sound.

On May 24,1844, the first long-distance message was sent by telegraph for 64 kilometers.

Telegraph companies were formed in many cities. By тисячі вісімсот шістьдесят один telegraph wires stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In Europe too, Samuel Morse's system became popular.

But telegraph wires could not be hung over an ocean. Messages to and from Europe had to be sent by ship-a journey of two or three weeks. A new method was needed.

The Atlantic Telegraph Company which was organized in 1856 wanted , 0 try to lay a cable on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean.





The 4,000-kilometer cable broke three times. Each time a new cable had to be made. Finally, on July 27, 1866, the first transatlantic message was sent from Newfoundland to Ireland.

Later cables were laid to Central and South America. After 1900 transpacific cables were laid to Asia and Australia. At last news and business information could be sent instantly to almost every country in the world.



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