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Text 3D. Non-traditional Renewable Sources of Energy

  1. A. Les sources du droit communautaire
  3. Human resources manager, deadlines, to work on your own initiative, to multi-task, a proven track record, resources, vacancies, position, bodies, recruitment agencies.
  4. It is planned to preserve seas, particularly the Sea of ??Azov. Tens of millions of grivnas are allocated annually for the conservation and restoration of fish resources.
  5. Nuclear Energy
  6. On your own. Use the Internet and other resources to find information about the character of Y.P.Khabarov. Prove that he was a successful Russian commercial man.
  7. Organisms that get the nutrients and energy they require by feeding either directly or indirectly on producers are called consumers or heterotrophs (other-feeders).

предтекстовие ВПРАВИ

Вправа 1. Поясніть вживання часів групи Perfect, переведіть:

l.This is a very good book, I have just read it with pleasure. 2. He has been absent this week. He has been ill. 3.1 have not seen you for a long time. Where have you been all this ^ time? 4. We have not heard about her since 1989.5. By the beginning of the lecture the laboratory assistant had brought all the necessary diagrams. 6. Before we game to the next lecture we had studied the material of the first one. 7. Have you already finished your diploma work? No, I shall have finished it by the end of June. 8. They will not have passed their exams by the time you return. 9. Many students have been enroled into universities this year. 10. The translation has not been finished j [et. It will have beerTfiriished by the end of the month. 11. Have you brought these journals with you? No, these journals had been brought by my sister before I returned from St.Petersburg. Do not you know that?

Вправа 2. Виберіть правильну формуприсудка:

1. Не (has graduated. Graduated) from MSTU named after Bauman this year. He (graduated, will have graduated) from MSTU named after Bauman in 6 years. 2. She (saw, has seen) us in the morning yesterday. She (saw, has seen) us this morning. 3.1 (have met, met) him last year. I never (had met, hay met) him before. 4. Our group (will do, will have done) a lab work tomorrow. 5. This problem (is discussed, has been discussed) much in the press lately. This problem (was discussed, had been discussed) yesterday.

Вправа З.Переведіть на англійську мову:

. 1. Що ви зробили сьогодні? - Я надрукувала (to type) багато листів. Я хочу подивитися лист до містера Д. - Ось, будь ласка. Я тільки що надрукувала його. А лист до містера Р.? - Я ще не надрукувала цей лист. Я надрукую його до кінця робочого дня. 2. Вчора ми зустріли наших друзів. Ми не бачили їх з закінчення університету. До повернення в Москву вони працювали в Орлі. 3. Новий завод буде побудований до початку наступного року. Він буде оснащений найсучаснішим обладнанням.

Вправа 4.Прочитайте і поясніть вживання часів:

At the Institute

Vera: Hello, Mike! What are you doing here?

Mike: Hello, Vera! I am reading for my mathematics exam.

V .: But your group has passed it already, has not it?

M .: Yes, it has, but I was absent at this time. So I'll take this

exam tomorrow.
 V .: Is it difficult for you to take this exam?

M .: No, it is not. I have finished a specialized mathematical

school where mathematics was studied more thoroughly

(Ретельно) than at other schools. Besides, I have taken

part in a mathematics contest of our city.
 V .: Really? Have you? When was it?

M .: It was last year.

V .: Were you the first at this contest?

M .: No, I was the second. The first one was the boy from one

of the Novosibirsk mathematical schools.
 V .: Have you ever been to Novosibirsk?

M .: Yes, I have been there this year with a ground of students

of our faculty.
 V .: What have you seen there?

M .: Oh, I have seen a lot, But now I have no time to tell you

about it. Well, Vera, what are you doing here? Are you

reading for your exams too?
 V .: No, I am not. I've passed all my exams with good marks

this term and so my holidays have already started. I'm

waiting for my friend here. Good luck, Mike.

Вправа 5. Визначте, ніж виражено підлягає кожного пропозиції, переведіть:

1. After the international conference on ecology it has become possible to begin working at environmental problems on a global scale. 2. Some scientists and engineers are working at improving traditional production processes, othcrs are developing new technologies. 3. The new instruments


will enable us to determine the level of pollution in our rivers. 4. Our technological advances make it possible to deal with the most difficult problems. 5. Our lecturer's book on strength of materials is well-known and popular. 6. One must study six years to become an engineer. 7. There is a big library in the new building of our institute.lt is a very good library. One may get all the necessary books there and it is possible to keep them till the end of the academic year. 8. It is well-known that technological progress is impossible without electronics, computers, robots and new materials. 9. That ecological problems have become the most important ones at present is evident to all. 10. What is necessary for the students is to get a good qualification. 11.That S.P.Korolyev was the founder of practical cosmonautics is a well-known fact. 12. That theory is combined with practical training is a very good tradition of our educational system. 13. That it is necessary to develop an international ecological program is realized throughout the world.

Вправа 6.Визначте, ніж виражено присудок в кожному реченні, переведіть:

1. The electronic industry produces several types of minicomputers. 2. The air in many cities has been polluted by traffic and industry. 3. The lecture on environment protection was very interesting. 4. Mankind has never experienced changes in life and work on such a scale. 5. The task of the world community is to improve the ecological situation in the world. 6. In six years we shall become engineers. 7. It is possible to take measures to protect environment on a global level by the joint efforts of all countries. 8. Professor N. is the dean of our faculty. 9. The important feature of. our education is that it combines theory with practical training. 10. The main tendency of our life is that computers are being used in all spheres of technology, science and everyday life. 11. The essential feature in environment protection is that most of it is done by public initiative. 12. What is necessary today is that the protection of global natural resources must be planned. 13. Today one of the most important problems is that big cities are polluted.



Вправа 7. Перекладітьтакі похідні слова за зразком:

дієслово + -erl-or - іменник to teach - вчити, навчати - * teacher - вчитель Хо regulate - регулювати - * regulator - регулятор

to lecture - lecturer, to speak - speaker, to invent - inventor, to generate - generator, to transform - transformer, to indicate - indicator, to compute - computer;

суфікси прикметників -antl-ent to excel - перевершувати - * excellent - чудовий

important, efficient, distant, evident, confident, recent; негативні префікси un-lim questionable - спірне, unquestionable - незаперечний, безсумнівний

material - immaterial, limited - unlimited, important - unimportant, usual - unusual, natural - unnatural, necessary - unnecessary, known -unknown, qualified - unqualified, changing - unchanging, seen - unseen, possible - impossible, perfect - imperfect, personal - impersonal, mobile -immobile.

Вправа 8. Прочитайте і переведіть інтернаціональні слова:electricity [ilek'trisiti], civilization [, sivilai'zei / an], economic and social progress [ 'praugres], transformer [transforms], universal [ju: ni'va: sal], electrometallurgy [i'lektrsume'taeladgi] , cable [ 'keibl], specific [spe'sifik], machine [ma'Ji: n], photocopying machine, radar [' reida], Paris [ 'paeris], generator [' djenareita], battery [ 'baetari], lamp [ 'laemp], dynamo [' dainamau], indicator [ 'indikeita], nation [' nei / an], energy [ 'enad3i], service [sa: vis], laser [1 aeza], compact [kam'paekt ].

Вправа 9. Прочитайте і запам'ятайте вимова таких слів:imagine [i'mae d3in], turn [ta: n], daily [ 'deili], completely [kam'pli: tli], power t'paua], appeareance [a'piarans], gear [gia], pulley [ 'puli], whole [haul], range [reind3], device [di'vais], source [so: s], century [' sent / uri], design [di'zain], since [sins], consumption [ kan'sAmp / an], double [dAbl], health [hel0], reduce [ri'dju: s], beam [bi: m], advantages [ad'vunti3iz], clean [kli: n], regulated [ ' regjuleitid], generate [ 'd3enareit], human [' hju: man], latest [leitist].

Слова і словосполучення для запам'ятовування

 advantage n - Перевага appearance n - поява application і - застосування, заявленіеcompletely adv- повністю, целікомconsumption і - споживання, витрату cover n - охопити, охоплювати,

invent v- винаходити power n - енергія, потужність

 3 *

- property n - Властивість recent a - недавній, останній

- Reduce v - зменшувати, знижувати replace v- замінювати

- Set up (set) v- споруджувати, споруджувати source n - джерело

 design v - конструювати, про- state n - Положення, стан
 тировать such as - такий як
 device n - Прилад, пристрій transform v - перетворювати
 double v - подвоювати turn v - повертатися, обра-
 efficient а - ефективний тіться
 generate v - виробляти, ви- wide a - широкий
 водити without prp - без
 imagine v - уявляти собі, по-whole a - Весь, цілий

in the case of - в разі

to be based on - грунтуватися, бути заснованим на


Прочитайте текст, перерахуйте найбільш важливі винаходи в області електротехніки. Переведіть.


It is impossible to imagine our civilization without electricity: economic and social progress will be turned to the past and our daily lives completely transformed.

Electrical power has become universal. Thousands of applications of electricity such as lighting, electrochemistry and electrometallurgy are longstanding and unquestionable.

With the appearance of the electrical motor, power cables replaced transmission shafts, gear wheels.belts and pulleys in the 19-th century workshops. And ш the home a whole range of various time and labour saving appliances have become a part of our everyday lives.

Other devices are based on specific properties of electricity: electrostatics in the case of photocopying machine and electromagnetism in the case of radar and television. These applications have made electricity most widely used.

The first industrial application was in the silver workshops in Paris.
 The generator - a new compact source of electricity - was also developed
 there. The generator replaced the batteries and other devices that had been
 used before. "

Electric lighting came into wide use at the end of the last century with the development of the electric lamp by Thomas Edison.Then the transformer was invented, the first electric lines and networks weresetup, dynamos and induction motors were designed.

Since the beginning of the 20-th century the successful development of electricity has begun throughout the industrial world. The consumption of electricity has doubled every ten years.

Today consumption of electricity per capita is an indicator of the state of development and economic health of a nation. Electricity has replaced

other sources of energy as it has been realized that it offers improved service and reduced cost. '

One of the greatest advantages of electricity is that it is clean, easily-regulated and generates no by-products. Applications of electricity now cover all fields of human activity from house washing machines to the latest laser devices. Electricity is the efficient source ofjome_oTthe most recent technological advances such as the laser and electron beams. Truly electricity provides mankind with the energy of the future.

Notes to the Text

1. transmission shafts, gear wheels, belts and pulleys - трансмісійні вали, зубчасті колеса, ремені і блоки

2.time and labour saving appliances - електроприлади, що заощаджують час і працю

3. induction motors - індукційні мотори

4. per capita - на людину; на душу населення

5. by-products - побічні продукти

6. truly - воістину

ВПРАВИ Вправа 10.Перегляньте текст ЗА і дайте відповідь на питання:

1. What is this text about? 2. What industrial applications of electricity do you know? 3. What home applications of electricity do you know? 4. Where was the generator developed? 5. Who invented the electric lamp? 6. Do you know who invented the dynamo? 7. Can you imagine our life without electricity? Why?

Вправа 11. Визначте функції дієслова to have, переведіть:

1. Electricity has many useful properties: it is clean and generates no by-products. 2. rt has many important applications in industry as well as in our houses. 3. The latest laser devices have found application in medicine. 4. Electricity has provided mankind with the most efficient source of energy. 5. No other source of energy has been so widely used as electricity. 6. We have many various electric devices in our houses. 7. "Our lives have been completely transformed with the appearance of electricity. 8. The generator replaced batteries that had been used before. 9.Tlie consumption of electricity has doubled every ten years.

Вправа 12.Знайдіть підмет і присудок в наступних пропозиціях, переведіть:

1. That electricity is clean and easily-regulated is its great advantage. 2. The important fact is that electricity offers improved service at reduced cost. 3. That the two scientists Lodygyh and Yablochkov were the first in Russia to work in the field of electrical engineering is well-known. 4. One of the main advantages of electricity is that it does not pollute the environment. 5. The indicator of nation development is how much electricity is


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