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Text 2C, Ecological Problems of Big Cities Text 2D. London, its History and Development

  1. A BRIEF HISTORY of the INTERNET
  2. A Brief History of the Russian Customs Service
  3. A) ecological problem;
  4. Amur River History
  5. Big Cities, Small Towns
  6. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS
  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMISTRY

bang on time

beef up

brush up (on sth)

can not afford (doing)

departure lounge

drop the class

feel homesick

give up

hang with

liberal arts

make sense

might be a stretch

no-brainer

provide opportunity

piece of advice

real draw

show off

take class

turn out (to be)

well-rounded

ББК 81.2 Англ. -923

УДК 802.0

ПЕРЕДМОВА


рецензенти: Т.І.Мучнік, Н.В.Коритіна

066 Орловська І.В., Самсонова Л.С., Скубріева А.І.066 Підручник англійської мови дасдвп »вагомих університетів і вищих навчальних закладів. -М .: Із МГТУ, 1994. -310 с.

ISBN 5-7038-0931-2

Англ. -923

095 (2) -94

ISBN 5-7038-0931-2© І.В.Орловская,

А.І.Скумбріева, 1994.

© Видавництво МГТУ.

ім. Н. Е. Баумана, 1994.


Цей підручник призначений для студентів технічних університетів і інститутів, які вивчали англійську мову в середній школі, і складений відповідно до вимог програми з іноземних мов для немовних вузів. Підручник розрахований на 270-280 годин аудиторних занять. Він може бути використаний для самостійного вдосконалення знань тими, хто хоче навчитися читати науково-технічну літературу.

Мета підручника - підготувати студентів до читання спеціальної науково-технічної літератури для добування інформації, а також прищепити їм навички усного мовлення за спеціальною і неспециальной тематиці.

При організації навчального матеріалу автори ставили за мету повторення і узагальнення основних граматичних тем і лексики, пройдених в середній школі, а також поглиблене вивчення тих граматичних і лексичних явищ, які необхідні студентам для професійного спілкування англійською мовою. Тематика текстів визначається тим мінімумом загальнотехнічних знань, яким володіють студенти перших двох курсів технічних університетів і інститутів. Тексти підручника відібрані з оригінальних англійських і американських джерел з урахуванням їх інформативності та відповідності науково-технічних досягнень і викладені за принципом зростання складності і поступового ускладнення мови і тематики.

Підручник складається з 12 уроків-тим, додаткових текстів, поурочного граматичного довідника, англо-російського словника і додатки. Кожен урок-тема містить чотири тексти, три з яких об'єднані спільною тематикою, а четвертий, як правило, має країнознавчу спрямованість. Всі ці тексти призначені для навчання різним видам читання. Перший текст уроку є основним і підлягає ретельному опрацюванню та аналізу для вивчення тих граматичних і лексичних явищ, яким присвячений даний урок. Другий і третій тексти служать розвитку навичок читання і вилучення необхідної інформації, а також навичок бесіди з відповідної тематики, що сприяє закріпленню лексико-граматичного матеріалу, опрацьованого в основному тексті. Четвертий текст уроку присвячений питанням країнознавства і дає можливість провести бесіду, дискусію за круглим столом, рольову гру із залученням ілюстративного і додаткового матеріалу, підібраного викладачем і студентами самостійно.

Кожен урок-тема починається з предтекстовие вправ для опрацювання граматичного і лексичного матеріалу. Ці тематичні вправи призначені для подолання лексичних та граматичних труднощів основного тексту і вимагають детального опрацювання в аудиторії. Вправи складені на основі лексики попередніх уроків. Вправи після основного тексту дані для закріплення граматичного і лексичного матеріалу. Багаторічний досвід роботи у вищих технічних навчальних закладах дозволяє авторам стверджувати, що одним з основних завдань викладання іноземної мови в технічних університетах та інститутах є розвиток у студентів навичок розуміння і перекладу технічного тексту, що можливо здійснити шляхом виконання як під керівництвом викладача, так і само-


1 *


LESSON 1


1?

кові великої кількості вправ. Перед основним текстом в алфавітному порядку подано слова, що підлягають активному засвоєнню.

Вправи на словотвір містять в основному активну лексику. Ці вправи, а також роботу з міжнародною лексикою рекомендується виконувати в аудиторії. При цьому викладач постійно звертає особливу увагу студентів на зіставлення сходжень і розбіжностей граматичної структури і лексичного фонду рідного і досліджуваного мов. Широкий вибір лексико-граматичних вправ дозволяє це зробити.

Для практичного використання студентом набутих знань потрібно володіти вмінням самостійно працювати над мовою. Тому автори визнали за необхідне ввести спеціальну серію вправ для самостійної роботи. Ці вправи дано для закріплення пройденої лексики і граматики і підготовки до роботи зі словником. Заключне вправу кожного уроку (переклад тексту без словника) служить для контролю засвоєння студентом граматичних і лексичних аспектів даного уроку.

Невід'ємною частиною спілкування є вміння вести бесіду на професійні теми, для чого наведені вправи рубрики «Conversation», завдання яких дано по-англійськи. При цьому автори дотримуються принципу поступового ускладнення як текстів, так і завдань. Велика тематика і велика кількість текстів, завдань до них і вправ дають можливість викладачеві варіювати роботу в залежності від рівня підготовки групи і давати індивідуальні завдання студентам.

Додаткові тексти по тематиці і лексиці пов'язані з основними текстами уроків. Вони призначені для самостійної та індивідуальної роботи і можуть бути використані в якості додаткового матеріалу при проведенні дискусій, бесід

і конференцій.

Поурочні граматичний довідник містить виклад тих граматичних тем, які, на думку авторів, необхідні під час навчання читання та професійному спілкуванню. Він може використовуватися при самостійному вивченні мови.

В кінці підручника дано англо-російський словник і додатки. До словника включені всі слова, що зустрічаються в текстах і вправах.

Автори висловлюють подяку за цінні вказівки, поради, допомогу та зауваження співробітникам кафедри іноземних мов Н. Н. Пиховой і Л. М. Степанової.


дієслова to be, to have

часи групи Indefinite Active, Passive

оборот there + be

Порядок слів у реченні

суфікси -tion, -ic, -al, -ly

Text 1A. Higher Education in Russia Text IB. Cambridge Text 1С. Higher Education in the USA Text 1D. Л Letter

предтекстовие ВПРАВИ

Вправа 1. Поставте наступні пропозиції в Past Indefinite або Future Indefinite, додаючи, де необхідно, слова last / next week, last / next year, tomorrow, yesterday і т.д.:

1.1 am very busy today. 2. They are in the reading-room now. 3. It is a cold day today. 4. We are students of one of the Moscow Institutes. 5. You are late for the lecture. 6. Mary is a good student. 7. Students have four exams in January. 8. Today they have time to go to the cinema. 9. We have some English magazines. 10. The book has many diagrams. 11.1 have good news. 12. She has a map of England.

Вправа 2 ". Поставте наступні пропозиції в Past and Future Indefinite, додаючи слова yesterday, tomorrow і т.д.:

1. There is a large reading-room in our university. 2. There are thirty students in our group. 3. There is a new film in our club today. 4. There is one telephone in our office. 5. There are many students at the lecture.

Вправа З. Поставте наступні пропозиції в Past or Future Indefinite, додаючи слова last / next year, yesterday, tomorrow, last / next week, last / next summer і т.д .: 1. We study six days a week. 2.1 go to the institute every day. 3. My friend lives in a hostel. 4. Usualy I get up at 7 o'clock. 5. My studies begin at half past eight. 6. We have four lectures every day. 7. After lectures we go to the dinning room. 8. We do our home-work for the next day. 9. At night I read and watch T.V. 10. On Sunday I visit my friends. Вправа 4. Поставте присудок в негативній формі:

1. Today our lectures begin at 10 o'clock in the morning. 2. We were school-children last year. 3. We had four entrance exams in summer. 4. Yesterday the first-year students saw the institute laboratories. 5. We


took all the necessary books from the library. 6.1 got excellent marks for my entrance exams. 7. He knows the meaning of the word "engineering" (техніка, машинобудування, інженерна справа). 8. The students of our group will meet in the laboratory. 9. The librarian gave us all the necessary

books.

Вправа 5. Вставте відповідні питальні слова:

1. ... is your name? 2. ... does not understand this grammar rule? 3 .... of

you studies French? 4. ... is the answer to my question? 5. ... do you live in

Moscow? 6. ... were you born? 7. ... lectures you on mathematics? 8. ... do

you study? 9. Here are the books. ... Is yours? 10. ... knows the answer to

this question?

Вправа 6. Поставте пса можливі питання до кожної пропозиції та

дайте негативну форму:

1. Не entered the Aviation Institute last year. 2. My sister studies at the U niversity. 3. The third-year students will have industrial training next

summer.

Вправа 7. Прочитайте і переведіть текст.

Moscow Technological Institutes There are many technological institutes in Moscow. There are such institutes as Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Electromechanical Institute, Aviation Institute, Moscow State University of Technology named after Bauman, Civil Engineering Institute and many others. The head of each institute is Rector. As a rule there are several faculties in an institute. Each faculty has a number of specialized departments and is headed by a dean. The course of studies usually lasts (триває) 5-6

years.

The academic year in this country's higher schools begins on the 1st of

September and is divided into two semesters. Students take exams at the

end of each semester. If the results of the examinations are good students

get grants. Twice a year students have vacations - two weeks in winter and

two months in summer.

Our university is one of the oldest technological institutes in Moscow. It has several buildings, old and new ones. There are many various laboratories. There is a very good library and a computer center in the main

building.

Every faculty has its own specialized library, laboratories, workshops

and computer centers.

The first and second-year students study general engineering subjects (загальнотехнічні предмети). In the third year students begin to study

specialized subjects.

A very good tradition of our university is that theory is accompanied by practical training. Students begin to work at the university's well-equipped (добре обладнаний) laboratories and in senior years at various plants, design offices and research institutes of this country.


It is interesting but difficult to study at our university, especially forthe first-year students as theydo not know yet how to organize their work

and time.

Вправа 8. Переведіть пропозиції, поставте їх взапитальною формі і,де можливо, в негативній формі:

1. The books are taken from the library. 2.He was asked to help oneof our students. 3. Many newspapers and magazines are published in thiscountry. 4. That problem was discussed at our meeting. 5. The diagramswere brought by our monitor. 6. The exams will be taken in January.7. They were told to do their work quickly. 8. The study of theory isaccompanied by practical training. 9. Anew laboratory was opened lastyear. 10. We shall be given a new task tomorrow. 11. Every instituteis headed by Rector. 12. In summer you will be sent to abig plant for yourindustrial training.

1. This work must be done quickly. 2. Many complex problems can besolved with the help of computers. 3. Lomonosov may be called the founder of higher education in Russia. 4. Books on this subject can be found in every library. 5. Many basic subjects must be studied by the first and second-year students.

СЛОВОТВІР

Вправа 9. Переведіть такі похідні слова: дієслово + tiоп = іменник to examine - перевіряти, екзаменувати - * examination - іспит to apply - подавати заяву, заявляти - * application - заява

to educate-education, to collect-collection, to graduate-graduation, to specialize - specialisation, to accelerate - acceleration;

іменник + -al = прикметник "education - освіта - * educational - освітній industry - industrial, technology - technological;

іменник + -ic = прикметник science - наука - * scientific - науковий basis - основа - » basic - основний

прикметник + -ly = наріччя high - високий - * highly - високо

quick - quickly, effective - effectively.





 Вправа 10. Прочитайте і переведіть інтернаціональні слова: examination, expansion, university, institute, lecture [ 'lektja], student, system, speciality [, speji' 9m'pju: ta], sport center, acceleration feksete'rei / an], technology [tek'no lad3i], technological progress, technical [ 'teknikal], theory [' eiari], mathematics [nueQi maetiks]. Вправа 11. Прочитайте і запам'ятайте вимова таких слів: year [je:], new academic year, high [hai], higher school, higher education, higher mathematics, autumn [ 'o-.tam], major [meldy »], per cent [pa'sent], curricula [ko'rikjub], pedagogy [ 'ped3god3i], future [fju: ta], further [ 'fe: oa], feature [' fi: t / a], to provide [pravaid], priority [praionti], humanities [hjuWnitiz], to determine [ditsanin], to know [nauj], knowledge [ 'nolidj] theoretical knowledge, specialized knowledge, part [pa: t], accessible [ok'sesabl] Слова і словосполучення ДЛЯ зАПАМ'ЯТОВУВАННЯ

 computer engineering - обчислювальна техніка to be interested in - цікавитися (чим-небудь) at present - в даний час science and technology - наука і техніка

as conj - як, у міру того як, коли, так як, оскільки as well as - так само як consider v- вважати, розглядати

connect v- пов'язувати, з'єднувати determine v - визначати develop v - розвивати, розробляти

development n- розвиток, розробка

enable v - давати можливість effectively adv- ефективно enter v- входити, надходити especially adv-особливо general a - Загальний feature n - особливість further a - подальший


improve v- покращувати, вдосконалювати main a - Головний mean (meant) v - значить, означатиме

number n - Число, кількість; a number of - ряд, кілька provide v - постачати, забезпечувати

receive v-отримувати same a - Той же state n - Держава spend (spent) v-витрачати, проводити

use v - користуватися usual а - Звичайний various a - різний


TEXT 1A Прочитайте і переведіть текст.

Higher Education in Russia

The new academic year has begun. Entrance examinations are over1 in the 894 higher schools of this country. More than a million new students were enroled into universities and institutes.

About 60 per cent of them entered technological institutes. In the last
 several years the number of students in technological institutes has risen
 by more than one million bringing the totaleTTrolment to almost three
 million. This means that young people are interested in the specialities
 connected with new branches of science and technology. At present
 engineers and technical specialists constitute 40 per cent of graduates from
 institutes of higher learning while humanities! The natural sciences and
 pedagogy account for 45 per cent. "" _,

The present academic year is marked by expansion of new forms of technical specialization.Specialization plays a major part in planning the curricula. Usually specialization begins in the third year. The first- and second-year students study general engineering subjects such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, mechanics, strength of materials, elements of machines, drawing as well as computer engineering, a foreign language and a number of others.)

The main feature of the educational system in this country is that it is accessible and free of charge for all. But education is free of charge only for the students but not for the state. The state spends large sums on higher education. About 75 per cent of the students receive state grants and 10 per cent get allowances from enterprises which sponsored their applications.

Most higher schools have their own students 'hostels and some of them have large and excellent sports centers.

Education plays an important part in the life of any country as it
 provides the country with highly-qualified specialists for its further
 development and progress.Top priority6 is given to improving the stand
 ards of higher education - especially in science and technology. At the same
 time institutes of technology will develop into universities of technology and
 devote many more hours to the humanities. /

The higher school today considers education not only as a collection of useful facts and theories but also as the process which trains a person to analyse and interrelate various ideas as well as make decisions7.

Today's young people will be the specialists of tomorrow in the society with new technology. Their qualification will determine the scientific and technological progress of the country. Besides, specialists in all fields should have a general education to supplement their specialized knowledge and thereby enable them to use it most effectively.

Notes to the Text

1. to be over - закінчуватися

2. to be enroled - бути зарахованим





3. humanities - гуманітарні науки

4. curriculum (Pi. curricula) -курс навчання, програма

5. to be accessible - бути доступним

6. top priority - пріоритет

7. to make decisions - приймати рішення

ВПРАВИ

Вправа 12. Перегляньте текст 1А і дайте відповідь на питання: 1. When does the academic year begin in this country? 2. How many higher schools are there in this country? 3. How many new students are enroled into the institutes every year? 4. How many exams did you pass to enter the institute? 5. Do you pay for your education? 6. Do students get grants? 7. What are the most interesting subjects for the young people? 8. What is the main feature of the education in this country?

Вправа 13. Порівняйте пропозиції в дійсному і пасивному стані, переведіть їх:

1. Students asked the lecturer many questions. The lecturer was asked many questions. 2. The monitor told the first-year students to come to the laboratory. The first-year students were told to come to the laboratory. 3. Usually a lab assistant shows the equipment to the students. Usually the equipment is shown to the students by a lab assistant. Usually students are shown the equipment by a lab assistant. 4. Students watched the process with great attention. The process was watched with great attention. 5. Tomorrow our teacher will give us a new task. A new task will be given tomorrow. We shall be given a new task tomorrow. 6. Practice accompanies theory. Theory is accompanied by practice. 7. He asked me to bring a dictionary. He was asked to bring a dictionary. 8. The teacher told the students to sign their drawings. The students were told to sign their drawings. 9. The dean will send the students to a big plant in summer. The students will be sent to a big plant in summer. 10. He taught us to use the lab equipment. We were taught to use the lab equipment.

Вправа 14. Переведіть пропозиції в пасивному стані, дайте варіанти, де можливо:

1. Mathematics, strength of materials, mechanics, elements of machines as well as engineering physics are studied at technological institutes. 2. The development of science is closely connected with the development of higher education. 3. Students arc provided with hostels, well-equipped laboratories and libraries. 4. Any country must be provided with good specialists in all branches of science and technology for its furtfier development. 5. Large sums of money arc spent by the state to train highly-qualified engineers. 6. Much attention must be paid to impove the standards of higher education. 7. Students of technological institutes are trained to analyse various facts and theories. 8. The scientific and


technological progress of a country is determined by the qualification of specialists. 9. Some institutes of technology are reorganized into universities. lO. The country must be provided with specialists capable of working with the technology of tomorrow effectively.

Вправа 15. Знайдіть причастя I і причастя II, переведіть пропозиції: 1. The students studying at the institutes passed entrance exams in summer. 2. The subjects studied in the first two years are very important for future engineers. 3. The lecture delivered by our dean was on new methods of technology. 4. The man delivering this lecture is our professor on mathematics. 5. An article discussing the new system of school education appeared in all newspapers. 6. The results of the experiments discussed yesterday will be published. 7. The attention paid to the study of fundamental subjects is great.

8. Students interested in computer engineering enter technological institutes.

9. The number of specialists connected with new branches of science and engineering is increased every year.

Вправи для самостійної роботи

Вправа 16. Визначте за суффиксу, до якої частини належать такі слова:

administration, gradual, electric, intensively, amplifier, practical, dramatic, engineer, integral, specific, operation, illumination, naturally, identical, selector, transmitter, organization, originally, refrigerator, explorer, arctic, technical, acceleration.

Вправа 17. Знайдіть в тексті 1А слова з суфіксами-ton, -al, -ic, -ly і переведіть їх.

Вправа 18. Знайдіть дієслівні форми, які можуть бути присудком у реченні:

student, many, will be passed, doing, technical, has, reports, studied, interesting, connected, are, were done, large, is, tasks, developed, is read, coming, texts, badly, giving, had, was made possible, are given, forms, necessary, teaches, basis, was, done.

Вправа 19. Знайдіть

а) антоніми (слова, протилежні за значенням):

to begin, to enter.young, large, to open, to take, quick, much, to graduate from, many, long, slow, little, to finish, old, small, to close, to give, few, short;

б) синоніми (слова, що збігаються за значенням):

new, large, many, to begin, to take, to speak, to enter, to build, to do, to get, modern, big, to start, much, to make, main, to talk, to construct, to come into , major.

Вправа 20. Складіть пропозиції з наступних слів відповідно до порядку слів в англійському реченні:

1. Has, buildings, our, several, institute. 2. Subjects, students, many, first-year, study. 3. third-year, had, last, students, training, industrial, summer. 4. Carry out, students, practical, work, in, laboratories, well-




И


equipped. 5. Problems, many, scientists, important, solve, our. 6. Texts, difficult, Petrov, technical, translated. 7. His, will, the teacher, translation, correct. 8. Next, dean, a lecture, deliver, our, week, will. 9. Students, more, institutes, this, entered, one, a million, than, year.

Вправа 21.Заповніть пропуски дієсловами to be, to have і відповідному часу:

1. Moscow ... the capital of Russia. 2. There ... many institutes in Moscow. 3. The oldest of them ... Moscow University. 4. Our institute ... one of the oldest technological institutes in this country. 5. It ... founded in 1830. 6. It ... old and new buildings. 7. There ... laboratories, workshops and libraries in our institute. 8. Every faculty ... its own computer center. 9. Our library ... a great number of books and magazines in all branches of science and technology. 10. Last year we ... at school, next year we ... the second year students. 11. We ... industrial training in the third year.

Вправа 22.Виберіть правильну форму:

1. Entrance exams (held, are held) in summer. 2. More than 20 new technological institutes (were founded, founded) in the last decade. 3. Basic engineering subjects (studied, are studied) in the first and second year.

4. Highly-qualified specialists (trained, are trained) in higher schools.

5. More than a million students (enroled, were enroled) to the institutes and
 universities of this country last summer. 6. The training of specialists (will
 be improved, will improve) as a result of restructuring in the next few years.

Вправа 23.Напишіть відповіді на питання за зразком:

Наприклад: Are there two presidents in the United States? No, there are not. There are not two presidents in the United States. There is one president in the United States.

1. Are there thirteen months a year? 2. Are there eight days a week? 3. Are there fifty minutes in a hour? 4. Are there seventy seconds in a minute? 5. Are there forty days in a month? 6. Are there thirty days in February? 7. Are there thirty-two days in January? 8. Are there five seasons in a year?

Вправа 24.Виберіть відповідні займенники:

1. (We, us) all went with (their, them) to the dean's office. 2. My friend came to see (I, me) last night. 3. Victor gave Peter and (I, me) a book and we went to the reading-room with (he, him) and his friend. 4. He told Mary and (me, I) to go with (he, him) and his sister. 5. They know all about my friend and (I, me). 6. I came to the Institute with Michael and (her, she). 7. An old man asked (we, us) to go and see (him, his). 8. Go with David and (her, she) to visit (they, them).

Вправа 25.Висловіть згоду або незгоду:

1. Do you study at school? 2. Are you a student of the third year? 3. Do you study many subjects? 4. Did you pass your entrance exams well? 5. Do


you live in Moscow? 6. Do you live far from the institute? 7. Is English your favourite subject? 8. Will you go to the concert tomorrow? 9. Were your books taken from the library? 10. Do you live in the hostel?

Вправа 26. Заповніть пропуски приводами in, at, ОП, to, into, under:

1. We live ... Moscow. 2. 1 gets up ... seven o'clock and leave ... eight. 3. I usually walk ... the institute. 4. There are three rooms ... our flat. 5. There is a picture ... the wall and a small table ... the picture. 6. He comes ... the room and sits down ... the chair ... the table. 7. ... the evening we watch TV or read books. 8. We do not study ... Sunday. 9. There are several newspapers ... the table.

Вправа 27. Дайте відсутні форми дієслова, запам'ятайте їх:

spend, got, leaving, risen, took, held, beginning, meant, say. Вправа 28. Прочитайте і переведіть текст без словника: As you know higher education in this country is accessible and free of charge to all. The students making good progress get state grants. The course of study at the universities lasts about six years. The students take three or four years of general engineering and fundamental courses, then one or two years of specialized training in some fields of science and technology. In the first and second years a good foundation for professional knowledge is provided. At present there are many modern laboratories at institutes of higher learning. Most higher schools have their own computer centers. This means that the state must spend a lot of money to improve higher education.

CONVERSATION

Exercise I. Answer the questions:

1. How old are you now? 2. Where were you born? 3. What city did you come from? 4. Where did you go to school? 5. What foreign language did you study at school? 6. How long did you study at school? 7. Why did you enter this institute? 8. What are your favourite subjects at the institute? 9. Where do you live? 10. Do you live with your family? 11. How do you usually spend your Saturday and Sunday? 12. What did you do last weekend? 13. What are you going to do next weekend? 14. What is your favourite sport? 15. What is your hobby? 16. Where do you usually spend your summer vacation? 17. When do you usually get up in the morning? 18. At what time do you usually leave home? 19. How do you usually get to the institute?

Exercise 2. Read and learn:

Mr. R .: Good morning. Have a seat.

Bob: Good morning. Thank you.





Mr. R .: I have your application here. Your name is Robert Smith, right?

В .: That's right, sir.

Mr. R .: And you hope to enter our university this year?

В .: Yes sir, if I can make it.

Mr. R .: Fine, Bob. You finished school a year ago. Why did not you enter college that year?

B. Well, I have a sister in college now. And there is another one

Who'll be going next year? So I need money to pay for my education.

Mr. R .: All right. How were your grades (відмітка, оцінка) at school?

В .: Well, pretty good. Until my last year I got a little too inters-

ted in sports. But I know I'll work hard in college.

Mr. R .: It's hard to keep up both sports and studies.

В .: Yes sir, I know.

Mr. R .: Fine. Well, we'll let you know in about two weeks, good luck (удача), Bob.

В .: Thank you, sir. Goodbye.

Mary: Professor, I think you can speak several languages.

Professor: Yes, I'd say about five.

M .: French, I think? And German?

P .: No, neither. I read them well, but have never learned to

speak them.
 M .: Italian? Chinese?

P .: No, I am afraid not.

M .: You must be kidding me (обманювати, сміятися).

P .: Not at all. First, there is a language we are using now. Then

There is the language I use in the classroom, in my lectures.

Next, there is the speech I use when I go back to my home

town. And I have another that I use with my little daughter

and still another with my dog. Then there's ...
 M .: But those are all English.

P .: Yes, of course. You speak differently to every person

Fortunately (на щастя), everybody does all this quite

naturally.

Exercise 3. Speak about:

Technological Institute. Academic Year at Technological Institute. I am a first-year student of the State University of Technology.

Use exercise 7 (see text "Moscow Technological Institutes") and text 1Afor your topic.


Exercise 4.Read and smile:

He was a Rising Star

Max Born. who later became an outstanding German physicist, took an exam in astronomy. He was examined by a professor. Here is their conversation:

Professor: What do you do when you see a falling star?
 Born: I think up of a wish, (задумати бажання)

P .: Is that all?

В .: Then I take a look at my watch, mark the time and the

Constellation (сузір'я) from which the star appeared, determine the direction of its movement and the length of its path, then go home and calculate the orbit of the star. The professor asked no more questions. He was satisfied (бути задоволеним).

TEXT IB

Прочитайте текст. Розкажіть про особливості навчання в Кембриджському університеті.

Cambridge

Cambridge is one of the two main universities of England located at the Cam River. It was founded at the beginning of the 12-th century. The University consists of (складається з) 24 different colleges including 4 colleges for women. Each college is self-governing (самоврядних).

The head of the University is the chancellor who is elected for life. The teachers are commonly called "dons" and "tutors". Part of the teaching is by means of lectures organized by the University. Besides lectures teaching is carried out by tutorial system for which the Cambridge University is famous all over the world. This is a system of individual tuition (навчання) organized by the colleges.

Each student has a tutor who practically guides him through the whoie course of studies. The tutor plans the student's work and once a week the student goes to his tutor to discuss his work with him. The training course lasts 4 years. The academic year is divided into 3 terms. The students study natural and technical sciences, law, history, languages, geography and many other subjects.

After three years of study a student may proceed (одержати вчений ступінь) to a Bachelor's degree. And later to the degrees of Master and Doctor. Students are required to wear gowns (мантія) at lectures, in the University library, in the street in the evening, for dinners in the colleges and for official visits. All the students must pay for their education, examinations, books, laboratories, university hostel, the use of libraries, etc. Very few students get grants. Not many children from the working class





families are able to get higher education, as the cost is high. The cost of education depends on the college and specialty.

A number of great men, well-known scientists and writers studied at Cambridge. Among them are: Erasmus, the great Dutch scholar, Bacon, the philosopher, Milton and Byron, the poets, Cromwell, the soldier, Newton and Darwin, the scientists.

TEXT 1С

Прочитайте текст. Розкажіть про особливості системи вищої освіти в нашій країні і в США.

Higher Education in the USA

There is no national system of higher education in the United States. Higher education is given in colleges and universities. There are over 2100 various higher educational institutions, including colleges, technological institutes and universities The average college course of study is 4 years. The academic year is usually 9 months or 2 terms (semesters) of four and a half months each. Classes usually begin in September and end in June. The first-year students are called freshmen.

Students choose a major subject (профілюючий предмет, дисципліна) and take many courses in this subject. After four years, they get a traditional Bachelor's degree. Then the students may go on to graduate school (старші курси) and with a year or two of further study get a Master's degree.

After another year or two oi study and research, they may get a still nigher degree as Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.). The student's progress is evaluated by means of tests.term works and final examinations in each course.The student's work is given a mark, usually on a five point scale (5-бальна система). Letters indicate the level of achievement. "A" is the highest mark. "F" denotes a failure.

Most American colleges and universities charge for tuition. The methods of instruction in the universities are lectures, discussions, laboratory and course works or seminars.

Most cities have colleges or universities that hold classes at night as well ^ «sinAtytirm». In this way people may work for a degree or just take a course in the subject that interests them.

TEXT ID

Прочитайте лист і напишіть відповідь.

A Letter

Dear Sergei,

How are you? I have received your letter of 10-th June for which I thank you very much. I am sorry I have not written to you sooner, but I have had many things to do. You know it was a very hard year for me. I spent my time getting ready for my exams and I was doing well in many subjects.


After passing the exams I was enroled into the University. The whole course of study is four years. My major subject is mathematics. It is my favorite and my hobby. I am good at it and do maths whenever I have a chance. I take many courses in this subject. I like to take part in mathematical competitions organized at our department and at the University. I think that mathematics is "the language of science" and plays an important part in many sciences. We are lucky to have a brilliant lecturer in mathematics this term. He has a talent to take a difficult subject and make it simple. You leave the lecture hall with a feeling that mathematics is the most interesting subject the sun. Next term I'll do research in the field of computer engineering.

And how do you feel about maths? Please, write to me, I am especially interested in your life in students 'hostel.

Good-bye for the present, your friend Mike


LESSON 2

Часи групи Continuous Active, Passive Функції It, one, that Ступені порівняння прикметників Суфікси -ment, -ty, -ous Префікс re-Text 2A. Environment Protection must be Global Text 2B.Pollution

Text 2C, Ecological Problems of Big Cities Text 2D. London, its History and Development

предтекстовие ВПРАВИ

Вправа 1. Поясніть вживання часів групи Continuous, переведіть пропозиції:

1.1 am at my English lesson.I am sitting and doing my exercises. My friend is not sitting, he is standing at the blackboard and looking at me. 2. It is getting cold now, is not it? Look out. Is it raining now? 3. You are late. What were you doing? I was translating a text. 4. When I came home my parents were having supper and at the same time they were watching TV. 5. What was he doing when I rang up an hour ago? He was looking through a newspaper when I rang up. 6. Tomorrow we shall be preparing for a test for the whole evening. 7. In July they will be taking their exams for the whole month. 8. What will you be doing tonight at 10 o'clock? Will you be working? No, I shall be reading a book at this hour.

1. New Metro lines are being built now in Moscow. 2. What is going on? A new film is being discussed. 3. What grammar was being explained when you came in? 4. What questions were being discussed at that time? 5. New methods of research are being used in our lab. 6. Much is being done to improve laboratory methods.

Вправа 2. Виберіть правильну форму дієслова:

1. We (are translating, translate) a technical text now. 2. We usually (are not translating, do not translate) stories. 3. She (does not look, is not looking) through all the newspapers every evening. 4. He (looked, was looking) through a newspaper when the telephone rang. 5. What (were,


was) you doing a minute ago? .I (was watching, watched) television. 6. I (watch, am watching) television every day. 7. I had a late night, I (worked, was working) until midnight. 8.Yesterday he (worked, was working) a lot. 9.The students (had, were having) an interesting discussion when the teacher came in. 10.The students often (have, are having) interesting discussions after lectures. 11.When he comes they (will be taking.will take) a test. 12.They (will be taking.will take) a test next week. 13. Where is Ann? She is in the coffee shop. She (has, is having) a cup of coffee. She always (has, is having) a cup of coffee in the evening.

Вправа З. Поставте дієслово в відповідному часу в залежності від обставини:

This student (study) hard (at present, every day, last semester, when the telephone rang, tomorrow at this time, next semester).

Вправа 4. Переведіть на англійську мову:

1. Зараз у нас урок англійської мови. Викладач стоїть біля дошки і пояснює нову граматику. Студенти уважно слухають і записують. 2. Де ви були вчора після обіду? Я був удома весь день. Я писав листа друзям. 3. Що ти робив п'ять хвилин назад? 4. На нашій вулиці стався нещасний випадок (accident). Я дивився у вікно, коли він стався. 5. Що робитиме твоя сестра о 8 годині вечора? Вона буде виконувати домашнє завдання. 6. Які питання будуть обговорюватися сьогодні на зборах? Приходьте о 12 годині. Буде обговорюватися дуже цікаве питання. 7. Коли ми приїхали в місто, там будувався новий спортклуб.

Вправа 5. Переведіть it в різних функціях:

1. It is autumn. It is the 3-rd of October. It is dark in the morning and it is difficult to get up. 2. It is a new subject. It is very important for our future speciality. We shall study it for two years. 3. It will be our future speciality, but we do not know much about it in the first year. 4. It is known that the knowledge of general engineering subjects is the basis for the study of special subjects. 5. It seems that he works a lot. 6. It is said that the chemistry laboratory of our institute is good. 7. The student finds it difficult to translate such a text without a dictionary. 8. It was not easy to study at the institute. 9. It is important to understand the fundamentals of this science. 10. It was A.S.Popov who invented the radio. 11. It is the knowledge of general engineering subjects that is the basis of engineering training.

Вправа 6. Переведіть one в різних функціях:

1. One must study a lot to become an engineer. 2. We must write only one exercise now. 3. Engineering is one of the most important professions.it is the one that is taught at technical institutes. 4. One can not translate such an article without a dictionary in the first year. 5. One may enter any

 - ¦>

institute in this country, as all of them are free of charge. 6. One must have a very good knowledge of general engineering subjects to become a good engineer. 7. One must pass all the exams well to enter an institute. 8. Last summer I read many English articles, and my friend read some German ones. 9. This summer we shall spend in the country, the last one we spent in the city. 10. We translated many texts, but there is one more text to translate. 11. One can take this jouRjjal from the library.

Вправа 7.переведіть that в різних фунцию:

1. That student studies in our group. 2. Do you know those girls? They are from our institute. 3. The professor that lectures on mechanics is the dean of our faculty. 4. It is known that the knowledge of the general engineering subjects is the basis for the study of special subjects. 5. We know that the study of general engineering subjects is necessary for future engineers. 6. That higher education in this country is accessible to all is known to everybody. 7. The aim of today's foreign policy is that peace in the world should be permanent. 8. The programme for the first-year students differs from that of the third-year students. 9. There are many interesting articles in this journal, read those on your speciality. 10. It is the high qualification of future specialists that will determine the scientific and technological progress of any country.

Вправа 8. Дайте відсутні ступеня порівняння:

(The) biggest, longer, faster, (the) hardest, (the) heaviest, thinner, narrower, lower, (the) greatest, newer, colder, (the) hottest, (the) shortest, less, (the) worst , more.

Вправа 9. Поставте прикметники в порівняльній або найвищому ступені:

1. Moscow University is (large) University in Europe. 2. Strength of materials is (difficult) than chemistry. 3. Is it (interesting) to study at the Institute than at school? 4. My friend works (hard) at his English than I. 5. My brother is (old) than I but he is (short). 6. The University is one of the (tall) buildings in Moscow. 7. Days in summer are (long) than in winter. 8. This group studies (good) than that one.

Вправа 10. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання:

1. Which is the most difficult subject for you? 2. Which is the easiest subject? 3. Which of the subjects is more difficult: physics or mathematics?

4. Who is the tallest in your group? 5. Which is the most interesting subject
 for you? 6. Is English as difficult as mathematics?

Вправа П. Заповніть пропуски словами than, as ... as, not so... as: 1. In winter days are ... long ... in summer. 2. Chemistry is ... difficult ... physics. 3.1 study English ... long ... my friend. 4. My sister is older ... I.

5. English is ... so difficult ... mathematics. 6. Moscow is bigger ... Tallinn.
 7. This machine is ... old ... that one. 8.The new transistor is more powerful
 ... The old one. 9. The task of school education is ... important ... that of
 higher education.


Вправа 12.Переведіть обороти в порівняльному ступені відповідно до зразка: The longer the nights, the shorter the days. Чим довше ночі, тим коротше дні.

1. The harder we study, the more we know. 2. The more you work, the better you know English. 3. The more we study nature, the more we know about it. 4. The nearer the earth is, the denser the atmosphere is. 5. The stronger the wind, the harder the conditions of work for weather observers.

Вправа 13.Знайдіть в кожному ряду прикметники в порівняльному ступені і переведіть їх:

teacher, taller, thermometer, thinker worker, weather, worse, writer bomber, brother, brighter, barometer darker, driver, denser, dancer bigger, best, builder, better father, farther, foreigner, faster earlier, easier, eater, engineer compressor , computer, colder, closer meter, mover, more, motor

СЛОВОТВІР

Вправа 14. Переведіть такі похідні слова за зразком:

дієслово + -ment = іменник

to environ - оточувати - * environment- оточення

to enroll - enrolment, to develop - development, to achieve -achievement, to move - movement;

прикметник + - (i) ty = іменник communal - общинний - * community- спільність, співдружність social - громадський - *. society - суспільство

active - activity, special - speciality, national - nationality, intensive - intensity, electric - electricity;

іменник + -ous = прикметник fame-слава, популярність ** famous-знаменитий, відомий tremble - тремтіння, хвилювання - * tremendous - величезний, приголомшливий

variety - various, number - numerous, monotony - monotonous;

префікс -re (повторність дії) renew - оновлювати, відновлювати renewal- відновлення

renewable - відновлюваний, який відновлюється rebuild, remake, reuse, reorganize, reorganization.





Слова і словосполучення для запам'ятовування

achieve v - досягати increase v - збільшуватися

advance n - просування вперед, level n - рівень

успіх, прогрес purpose n - Мета, призначення

area п - Область, reach v - досягати

bring about v-викликати realize v - розуміти, чітко

carry out v- проводити, виконувати представляти

change v- міняти (ся), вимірюв- remain v - залишатися

нять (ся); п - Зміна, переме- scale n - Масштаб, розмір

на several a - кілька

considerable a - значний similar а - подібний, складний

deal with v - мати справу з solve v - вирішувати

effort n - зусилля still adv - все ще, проте

evident a - Очевидний success n - успіх

growth п - Зростання therefore adv - тому

however adv- проте, тим не менше way n - шлях, дорога

joint efforts - спільні зусилля take measures - вживати заходів throughout the world - по всьому світу


ТЕХТ2А



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Прочитайте текст. Розкажіть по-англійськи про результати дослідження, проведеного Всесвітньою організацією охорони здоров'я. | Прочитайте текст. Розкажіть по-англійськи про визначні пам'ятки сучасного Лондона. | Text 3D. Non-traditional Renewable Sources of Energy | Without, present. | At six o'clock at the laboratory. | Semester. 1 am sure that he (have) no language problem in the other countries when he (get) there. Many people in those countries (understand) English or French. | Він написав статтю про свою роботу. 3. Мене запитали, чи зробив я свою | Notes to the Text | Упражненіе18. Знайдіть синоніми і антоніми:. | He read all the books about sound that he could find and started to work on some of his own experiments. |

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