To be formed; to belong to; to be like; to be of value; to give an opportunity

  1. Opportunity Costs

Unit 5___ 133

Of; unlike; to be of importance; pre-existing rocks; schistose structure; to determine

1. Метаморфічні породи утворилися з извержен-них
 і осадових порід.

2. Гнейс, сланець, мармур та інші породи відносяться до
 групі метаморфічних порід.

3. Гнейс схожий на граніт, але, на відміну від граніту, він
 має шарувату структуру.

4. Взагалі кажучи, описані метаморфічні породи
 мають велике значення, так як їх структура дає можли
 ність встановити сліди дотеперішніх порід.

Задайте питання за зразком.

зразок: Metamorphic rocks are mostly found in the regions of mountain belts, (Where?) -> Where are meta-morphic rocks mostly found?

1. Metamorphic rocks have been developed from earlier igne
 ous and sedimentary rocks, (What rocks?)

2. The constituents of gneisses are distributed in bands or layers.

3. Mica and chlorite cause the rock to split into thin sheets, (what

4. The structure of metamorphic rocks is of importance, (Why?)

39. Закінчите пропозиції відповідними за змістом слотами з тексту Б:

1. As for the origin of metamorphic rocks they ...

2. When we say that a mineral has a schistose structure it means ...

3. It should be noted that the role of water in the formation of
 metamorphic rocks is great. It is known that high-grade metamorphic
 rocks are characterized by the absence of water while medium-grade
 rocks ...

4. Geologists should know every trace of the original structure of
 metamorphic rocks because ...

40. Підсумуйте зміст тексту Б, використовуючи слова в дужках:

1. The process of metamorphism. (To mean, to show, to undergo
 changes, to be transformed, to call)

2. The role of water in the formation of metamorphic rocks, (to
 be interdependent, to be related to, in such a way, generally speaking, to
 be characterized by)

134 UnitS

3. The difference between foliated and non-foliated metamor
 phic rocks, (Flaky, to cause, to split into, to cleave)

4. The structure of metamorphic rocks, (To be of importance, trace,
 pre-existing rocks, to give an opportunity of)

41. Розкажіть коротко (8-10 речень), що ви знаєте про гірських породах в земній корі, про їх походження, залягання н мінералах, якими вони багаті. Скористайтеся цим нижче схему н наступні розмовні формули:

as for as I know; as is known; as for; I'd like to say a few words about ...; it should be noted that ...; as a rule; generally speaking і ін.

Rocks of the Earth's Crust


sedimentary rocks igneous rocks metamorphic rocks


mechanical, chemical intrusive rocks, rocks structure

and organic extrusive (volcano) |

sediments rocks water in metamorphism


Practical value of each type of rocks (metals they are rich in)

42. Прочитайте текст У без словника і скажіть, про що ои. Слова для розуміння тексту:

profit- Прибуток; користь

residual- осадовий

alloy- сплав

cast iron- чавун


Minerals that make up rocks, are defined as inorganic substances which occur naturally and have a definite chemical composition and physical properties which vary within known limits.

The major properties are colour, crystal form, hardness, cleavage and others. Cleavage is one of the most diagnostically useful mineralogi-cal properties which can be found throughout the mineral.

Minerals of use to man can be grouped into two broad categories: 1) metals, such as aluminium, copper, gold, silver, iron, tin, platinum, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc, and 2) non-metallic minerals, such as diamonds, salt, limestone, cement, sulphur, and asbestos. When minerals occur so that they can be worked at a profit they are called ore deposits. Mineral deposits are seldom equally rich throughout.

Unit 5___ 135

Economic minerals are those which are of economic importance and include both metallic and non-metallic minerals.

Most minerals consist of several elements. Such elements are oxygen, silicon, titanium, aluminium, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium and hydrogen. They make up more than 99 per cent by weight of all the rock-forming minerals. Of these, aluminium, iron and magnesium are industrial metals. The other metals are present in small quantities, mostly in igneous rocks.

For example, iron is one of the most abundant metals in the Earth's crust. There are three important classes of iron deposits: deposits associated with igneous rocks; residual deposits and sedimentary deposits. Iron deposits associated with igneous rocks are usually small but very rich bodies either of haematite or magnetite. Large concentrations have been successfully mined in Pennsylvania (the USA) and in the Russian Federation.

Residual deposits of iron minerals are formed wherever weathering occurs. Iron deposits formed this way are very widespread. It should be stressed that the residual deposits were among the first to be exploited by man.

Sedimentary iron deposits make up most of the world's current production.

As the essential component of every variety of steel, iron is obviously the most important of all industrial metals. It has played a large part in the development of our modern civilization. Iron ores are mainly used for producing cast iron, steels and ferro-alloys. From a scientific point of view, iron's most important property is that it becomes magnetized.

The magnetic iron ore is the main wealth of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA). It is necessary to say that only in the last century was the secret of the unusual magnetism of enormous iron ore masses discovered underground.

Iron fields are worked by surface mining which is more economical. But the KMA is rich not only in iron ores. Its deposits contain bauxite, phosphorite, cement, sand and clays.

43. Розділіть текст В м логічні частини. У кожній Іста тексту
 вайднте пропозицію, яка передає її основну думку. озаглавьте кожну
 частина тексту В.

44. Знайдіть у тексті У відповіді на наступні питання:

1. Why is cleavage the most important property of minerals?

2. How can ore deposits be defined?

136___ , ___ Unit 5

3. What are iron ores used for?

4. What is the KMA rich in?

45. Знайдіть у тексті інформацію з наступних питань:

1. The main groups of minerals.

2. The composition of minerals.

3. The important classes of iron ore deposits.

4. Industrial importance of iron ores.

5. The characteristic feature of the KMA.

46. ??Визначте, який із трьох заголовків найбільш відповідає
 змісту тексту В:

1. Mineral Deposits.

2. The Composition of Minerals.

3. Iron Ores of Importance to Man.

47. Розкажіть, яка інформація з тексту В була для вас новою.
 Відзначте, які факти вам були вже відомі.

48. Переведіть текст зі словником:

New Discoveries about the "Blue Planet"

Specialists from many ground services have assessed the practical use of observations from outer space. The most effective use of the data obtained was made in the field of geology.

A look from outer space identified fundamentally new geological objects which had not been previously studied or mapped. The satellites helped establish the location of abyssal fractures stretching over hundreds and thousands of kilometres and cutting across the whole systems of folds, platforms and the ocean bed. They penetrate deep into the Earth and often act as supply canals of fusions and mineral-enriched solutions. About 20 such abyssal fractures have been identified on the territory of Russia. Successful development of space research makes it possible to survey the Earth's resources from space by satellites. Besides, the surveys by satellites give us information on other parts of the solar system. This has given rise to a new science of "geology of planets" called astrogeology. All this has greatly expanded the viewpoint of the geologist. At the present time geology, astronomy, meteorology, oceanography and geophysics are coming closer together and scientists believe that such combination of sciences must be used together to study the whole Earth.

UHIT 6Sources of Energy

A. Граматика.

Герундій (The Gerund).
Текст A. Fossil Fuels.

Б. Граматика.

Дієприкметник теперішнього часу (The Present Participle).
Текст Б. Coal and Its Classification.

B. Текст В.

Дискусія. Енергія і життя.



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