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Read the text about computer languages and find answers to the following questions.

  1. A. 1. Read and translate the following international words
  2. A. 1. Translate the following international words
  3. A. Do pre-reading tasks before each abstract, then read and translate the abstracts about the basics of management.
  4. A. Match the facts about the UK with the places on the map.
  5. A. Match the following words with their definitions.
  6. A. Read the additional texts with interesting facts about Canada and discuss this information with your partner.
  7. A. Read the text about takeover and choose one of the three connectors to fill each gap.

1) What markup tags do you know?

2) What are the ways to insert markup indicators in a document?

3) What is the difference between metadata and a language?

4) Give examples of SGML-based languages.

5) What are the common languages for displaying web-pages?

6) Why do web-page creators design different versions of pages written in HTML?

7) What is the key difference between HTML and XML?

8) What does the word 'extensible' mean in the names of languages?

9) Is XML a language or metadata? Why?

10) What are the features of XHTML?

11) What does the word 'portability' mean with reference to languages?

12) What is the origin of XHTML?

13) How does XHTML differ from HTML and XML?

14) Give definitions to the following terms: markup, SGML, DTD, metadata, HTML, XML, XHTML.


When you create a document you use a special code to denote the layout of the text

Markup refers to the sequence of characters or other symbols that you insert at certain places in a text or word processing file to indicate how the file should look when it is printed or displayed or to describe the document's logical structure. The markup indicators are often called "tags." For example, this particular paragraph is preceded by ( □ ) (or paragraph tag) so that it will be separated by an empty line from the preceding line.

Markup can be inserted by the document creator directly by typing the symbols in, by using an editor and selecting prepackaged markup symbols (to save keystrokes), or by using a more sophisticated editor that lets you create the document as you want it to appear (this is called a WYSIWYG editor).

There is now a standard markup definition for document structure (or really a description of how you can define markup) in the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).

SGML is a standard for how to specify a document markup language or tag set. Such a specification is itself a document type definition (DTD). SGML is not in itself a document language, but a description of how to specify one. It is metadata.

SGML is based on the idea that documents have structural and other semantic elements that can be described without reference to how such elements should be displayed. The actual display of such a document may vary, depending on the output medium and style preferences. Some advantages of documents based on SGML are:

· They can be created by thinking in terms of document structure rather than appearance characteristics (which may change over time).

· They will be more portable because an SGML compiler can interpret any document by reference to its document type definition (DTD).

· Documents originally intended for the print medium can easily be re-adapted for other media, such as the computer display screen.

The language that this Web browser uses, Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), is an example of an SGML-based language. There is a document type definition for HTML (and reading the HTML specification is effectively reading an expanded version of the document type definition).

SGML is based somewhat on earlier generalized markup languages developed at IBM, including General Markup Language (GML) and ISIL.

HTML is the set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser page. The markup tells the Web browser how to display a Web page's words and images for the user. Each individual markup code is referred to as an element (but many people also refer to it as a tag). Some elements come in pairs that indicate when some display effect is to begin and when it is to end.

HTML is a formal Recommendation by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and is generally adhered to by the major browsers, Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Netscape's Navigator, which also provide some additional non-standard codes. The current version of HTML is HTML 4.0. However, both Internet Explorer and Netscape implement some features differently and provide non-standard extensions. Web developers using the more advanced features of HTML 4 may have to design pages for both browsers and send out the appropriate version to a user. Significant features in HTML 4 are sometimes described in general as dynamic HTML. What is sometimes referred to as HTML 5 is an extensible form of HTML called Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML).

XML(Extensible Markup Language) is a flexible way to create common information formats and share both the format and the data on the World Wide Web, intranets, and elsewhere. For example, computer makers might agree on a standard or common way to describe the information about a computer product (processor speed, memory size, and so forth) and then describe the product information format with XML. Such a standard way of describing data would enable a user to send an intelligent agent (a program) to each computer maker's Web site, gather data, and then make a valid comparison. XML can be used by any individual or group of individuals or companies that wants to share information in a consistent way.

XML, a formal recommendation from the World Wide Web Consortium, is similar to the language of today's Web pages, the Hypertext Markup Language. Both XML and HTML contain markup symbols to describe the contents of a page or file. HTML, however, describes the content of a Web page (mainly text and graphic images) only in terms of how it is to be displayed and interacted with. For example, the letter "p" placed within markup tags starts a new paragraph. XML describes the content in terms of what data is being described. For example, the word "phonenum" placed within markup tags could indicate that the data that followed was a phone number. This means that an XML file can be processed purely as data by a program or it can be stored with similar data on another computer or, like an HTML file, that it can be displayed. For example, depending on how the application in the receiving computer wanted to handle the phone number, it could be stored, displayed, or dialed.

XML is "extensible" because, unlike HTML, the markup symbols are unlimited and self-defining. Anyone can invent a particular set of markup for a particular purpose and as long as everyone uses it (the writer and an application program at the receiver's end), it can be adapted and used for many purposes - including, as it happens, describing the appearance of a Web page. XML is actually a simpler and easier-to-use subset of the SGML, the standard for how to create a document structure. It is expected that HTML and XML will be used together in many Web applications. XML markup, for example, may appear within an HTML page.

As the World Wide Web Consortium describes it, XHTML is "a reformulation of HTML 4.0 as an application of the XML. The advantages of this language are "extensibility and portability."

Extensibility means that as new ideas for Web communication and presentation emerge, they can be implemented without having to wait for the next major version of HTML and browser support. New tags or attributes can be defined to express the new possibilities and, assuming some program at the receiving end can understand and act on them, new things may happen on your Web page that never happened before.

If extensibility is likely to lead to more complicated pages and larger programs, the portability advantage means that Web pages can now be made simpler than they were before so that small devices can handle them. This is important for mobile devices and possibly household devices that contain microprocessors with embedded programming and smaller memories. XHTML defines several levels of possible markup complexity and each document states its level of complexity at the beginning. Programs in microdevices might expect XHTML-coded files that state the simplest level of complexity so that they could be handled by a small program and memory.

HXTML differs from HTML 4 on the following points:


 



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