TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a(n) (1) ... network (either an intranet or an extranet). When you are set up with direct (2) ... to the Internet, your computer is provided with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP/IP.
TCP/IP is a two-layer program. The higher layer, Transmission Control Protocol, manages the (3) ... of a message or file into smaller packets that are transmitted over the Internet and received by a TCP layer that (4) ... the packets into the original message. The lower layer, Internet Protocol, handles the (5) ... part of each packet so that it gets to the right destination. Each (6) ... computer on the network checks the address to see where to (7) ... the message. Even though some packets from the same message are routed differently than others, they'll be recomposed at the destination.
TCP/IP uses the client/server model of communication in which a computer user (a client) requests and is provided a service (such as sending a Web page) by another computer (a server) in the network. TCP/IP communication is primarily (8) ..., meaning each communication is from one node (or host computer) in the network to another node or host computer. TCP/IP and the higher-level applications that use it are collectively said to be "stateless" because each client request is considered a new request (9) ...to any previous one (unlike ordinary phone conversations that require a (10) ... connection for the call duration). Being stateless frees network paths so that everyone can use them continuously. (Note that the TCP layer itself is not stateless as far as any one message is concerned. Its connection remains in place until all packets in a message have been received.)
Many Internet users are familiar with the even higher layer application protocols that use TCP/IP to get to the Internet. These include the World Wide Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Telnet (Telnet) which lets you (11) ...to remote computers, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). These and other protocols are often packaged together with TCP/IP as a "suite."
Personal computer users usually get to the Internet through the Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) or the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). These protocols encapsulate the IP packets so that they can be sent over a dial-up phone connection to an access provider's modem.
Protocols (12) ... to TCP/IP include the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which is used instead of TCP for special purposes. Other protocols are used by network host computers for exchanging router information. These include the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP), the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), and the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
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