1. Breaking Windows
  2. Windows NT
  3. . ' Windows Total Commander.
  4. 8. Windows
  5. Windows
  6. Windows
corbel, gablelattice window lintel () mullion [ 'mUli?n] oriel window rose window n bay window dormer window French window , keystone () mullioned window sash window tracery ' , , window-sill or ledge ,

C. 2. Read the text AN ENGLISH HOUSE and answer the questionsusing: as is known, I should say, according to the text, if we compare

1. What's the difference between the plan of an English house and the plan of the houses where we live?

2. Does an Englishman prefer to live in the suburbs or in a big city?

The plan of an English house differs from that of the houses where we live. English architects plan some apartments vertically instead of planning them horizontally, so that an English family having a separate apartment lives on two or sometimes three floors with rooms connected with a narrow staircase. They find it the most convenient style of apartment.

There are usually three rooms in each apartment besides a kitchen and a bathroom: a living - room, a bedroom and a dining room. The fireplace is being replaced by central heating, the garden is shared by several families.

An Englishman prefers to have an individual cottage in the suburbs instead of living in a big city. He likes to have a garden around his home. At present the individual cottage is giving way to block buildings with apartments one above the other which became the latest fashion.

C. 3. Read the texts and render them in Russian

a) HALF - TIMBERED HOUSES.The best half-timbered houses were built in the Tudor period, during the reign of Henry VIII (1509-1547) and Elizabeth I (1558-1603). These old half-timbered houses, some of which remain, are a source of delight and admiration.

The name comes from the fact that they were built with a timber framework, heavy wooden beams fitted into each other and secured with wooden pegs. The spaces between the beams were filled with narrow bricks covered with mud or plaster. The roofs were tiled and often had gables. The long boards under the gables, known as barge board, were usually beautifully carved. The top storey projected over the lower, so that upstairs rooms were bigger. These houses had numerous rooms, with chimneys and fireplaces built into the walls.

Glass was used for the windows, but in those days it was not possible to make the large sheets of glass we use. Small glass panes were fixed in strips of lead. The windows built out of the room to give more light and space were oriel windows, or if they reached to the ground, bay windows.

Notes: barge board,


b) THE CLASSICAL STYLE OF BUILDING.In the reign of the Stuart King James I in 1603 many things were changed in England, and among the changes was the style of building. Architects who travelled abroad, especially in Italy, saw designs of houses taken from the buildings of the ancient Greeks and Romans, which we call classical architecture. The greatest of these architects was Inigo Jones (1573-1652) who designed many beauitiful buildings in England, such as the Banqueting House in Whitehall, London, and the Queen's House at Greenwich.

The building in the classical style was simple and graceful in appearance, with the size and positioning of the front door and windows carefully arranged and in proportion to the building as a whole. There were still only small panes of glass, but set in casement windows, windows hinged to open outwards. Seventeenth - century country mansions were usually built of smooth stone, or a combination of brick and stone. The front door was imposing, like the entrance to a Greek temple, with pillars which sometimes went right up to the roof of the house. Often the door was reached by a graceful flight of steps, with a balustrade of carved stone or shapely wrought-iron. The tall windows were carefully designed to be in proportion to the whole building, with an equal number on either side of the front door. They were sash windows, which opened by sliding up, and which had larger panes of glass than before. They had the additional advantage that when they were open they did not break the line of the house. Formal gardens provided the setting for these gracious and lovely houses.

c) AN ELIZABETHAN MANSION.In the long reign of Elizabeth I, England was a peaceful and prosperous land. It became a fashion for a successful man to build a handsome house in the country. The Elizabethan Mansions were built of stone or brick or were half-timbered. If they were developed from an earlier mansion they sometimes combined both styles. These mansions were no longer designed to be used as fortresses, they were entirely residences, and as fine as possible. Large oriel windows or bay windows lighted the best rooms and gave wide views over the gardens. Chimneys were tall and cleverly built of brick to look decorative.

Walls were panelled and floors were made of wide planks. The main rooms were large with beautifully plastered ceilings. Often there was a long gallery with windows on one side. Here the family could stroll and chat, listen to music or dance.

The Elizabethans loved formal gardens with carefully clipped hedges and a dovecote to supply birds to the kitchen and a pond full of freshwater fish ready to be caught and cooked.

Notes: plank no longer

C. 4. Speak on the masterpiece on THE ISLE OF KIZHI

... The church is an excellent example of Russian wooden architecture. It was built at the turn of the seventeenth century and is made of wood. It was built with an axe alone, no other tools were used by the craftsman, and the wooden parts were joined without any nails.

It was designed and built by one and the same man. There's a legend about him. The legend says that after finishing his work he looked at the church and thought: "I'll never be able to build anything better than this, even if it takes me a lifetime!" So he threw his axe into the lake and left the island for good.

Notes: axe | nail | for good

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B. 4. Translate the words in brackets and the sentences | B. 9. Translate the sentences | D. Discuss Chita with your partner | A. 1. Read and translate the following international words | B. 4. Translate the sentences paying attention to Participle II | B. 6. Translate the sentences | A. 1. Translate the following international words | B. 4. Translate the sentences | B. 7. Translate the sentences | since, for 36, 37 |

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