Переведіть пропозиції на англійську мову.
1. Судова наука - це застосування наукових знань до вирішення судових суперечок.
2. Роль судової експертизи полягає в наданні неупередженої наукової інформації системі правосуддя.
3. Судова експертиза речових доказів може дати відповіді на важливі питання слідства.
4. Судова експертиза займається (is concerned) встановленням зв'язків між підозрюваними, потерпілими і місцем злочину.
5. Судовому експерту, відповідальному за проведення експертизи речових доказів під час слідства, потрібно оформити результати своєї роботи у формі експертного висновку для суду.
6. Судовому експерту потрібно з'явитися в суд і дати свідчення в якості експерта.
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Forensic science is a multidisciplinary subject used for examining crime scenes and gathering evidence to be used in prosecution of offenders in a court of law. Forensic science techniques are also used to examine compliance with international agreements regarding weapons of mass destruction.
The main areas used in forensic science are biology, chemistry, and medicine, although the science also includes the use of physics, computer science, geology, and psychology. Forensic scientists examine objects, substances (including blood or drug samples), chemicals (paints, explosives, toxins), tissue traces (hair, skin), or impressions (fingerprints or tidemarks) left at the crime scene. The majority of forensic scientists specialize in one area of ??science.
Evidence and Trace Examination
The analysis of the scene of crime or accident involves obtaining a permanent record of the scene (forensic photography) and collection of evidence for further examination and comparison. Collected samples include biological (tissue samples such as skin, blood, semen, or hair), physical (fingerprints, shells, fragments of instruments or equipment, fibers, recorded voice messages, or computer discs) and chemical (samples of paint, cosmetics, solvents, or soil).
Most commonly, the evidence collected at the scene is subsequently processed in a forensic laboratory by scientists specializing in a particular area. Scientists identify, for example, fingerprints, chemical residues, fibers, hair, or DNA left behind. However, miniaturization of equipment and the ability to perform most forensic analysis at the scene of crime results in more specialists being present in the field. Presence of more people at the scene of crime introduces a greater likelihood of introduction of contamination into the evidence. Moreover, multi-handling of a piece of evidence (for example a murder weapon being analyzed by many specialists) is also likely to introduce traces of tissue or DNA not originating from the scene of a crime. All this results in strict quality controls imposed on collection, handling, and analysis of evidence to ensure lack of contamination. For example, in DNA analysis it is essential that samples are stored at the correct temperature and that there is no contamination from a person handling a sample by wearing clean gloves and performing analysis in a clean laboratory.
Ability to properly collect and process forensic samples can affect the ability of the prosecution to prove their case during a trial. The presence of chemical traces or DNA on a piece of debris is also crucial in establishing the chain of events leading to a crime or accident.
A growing area of ??forensic analysis is monitoring non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, analysis of possible terrorist attacks or breaches of security. The nature of samples analyzed is wide, but slightly different to a criminal investigation. In addition to the already described samples, forensic scientists who gather evidence of mass destruction collect swabs from objects, water, and plant material to test for the presence of radioactive isotopes, toxins, or poisons, as well as chemicals that can be used in production of chemical weapons. The main difference from the more common forensic investigation is the amount of chemicals present in a sample. Samples taken from the scene of suspected chemical or biological weapons often contain minute amounts of chemicals and require very sensitive and accurate instruments for analysis.
Biological traces are collected not only from the scene of crime and a deceased person, but also from surviving victims and suspects. Most common samples obtained are blood, hair, and semen. DNA can be extracted from any of these samples and used for comparative analysis.
DNA is the main method of identifying people. Victims of crashes or fires are often unrecognizable, but adequate DNA can be isolated and a person can be positively identified if a sample of their DNA or their family's DNA is taken for comparison. Such methods are being used in the identification of the remains in Yugoslav war victims, the World Trade Center terrorist attack victims, and the 2002 Bali bombing victims.
Biological traces, investigated by forensic scientists come from bloodstains, saliva samples (from cigarette buts or chewing gum) and tissue samples, such as skin, nails, or hair. Samples are processed to isolate the DNA and establish the origin of the samples. Samples must first be identified as human, animal, or plant before further investigation proceeds. For some applications, such as customs and quarantine, traces of animal and plant tissue have to be identified to the level of the species, as transport of some species is prohibited. A presence of a particular species can also prove that a suspect or victim visited a particular area. In cases of national security, samples are tested for the presence of pathogens and toxins, and the latter are also analyzed chemically.
Дайте відповідь на питання.
1. What is forensic science used for?
2. What do forensic scientists examine?
3. What does the analysis of the scene of crime or accident involve?
4. Is it possible to perform most forensic analysis at the scene of crime?
5. What do the presence of more people at the scene of crime and multi-handling of a piece of evidence require?
6. What affects the ability of the prosecution to prove their case during a trial?
7. What do forensic scientists who gather evidence of mass destruction collect?
8. How are biological traces collected?
9. Where is DNA analysis method used?
10. Where do biological traces come from?
11. What is the main idea of ??the text?
13. Користуючись інформацією з тексту, заповніть схему і перекажіть текст.
UNIT 6. TEST YOUSELF | Вставте пропущені прийменники. | GLOSSARY | Прочитайте висловлювання видатних вчених про науку і дайте свій коментар до кожного з них. Почніть свою відповідь з однією з моделей. | Замініть російські слова в дужках англійськими еквівалентами з рамки. | Складіть речення. | THE SCOPE OF FORENSIC SCIENCE | Anthropology | Definition of Forensic Science 5 | MS - Master of Sciences |