UNIT 4. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW
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In general, it is not against the law to steal someone else's ideas. If a man I meet in a bar tells me how people can become rich, and I publish a best- selling book based on his ideas, I do not have to pay him any money or even mention his name in the book. But most countries do place legal limits on copying the exact words someone has written, the art or music they have created, or the technology they have invented. Such work is known as intellectual property. The main legal instruments for protecting it are patentsand copyrights.
In order to prevent a new discovery or scientific process from being copied, it is necessary to apply for a patent. If granted, a patent makes it illegal for others to manufacture or use the invention without permission. However, a patent will only be granted if the invention has not yet been shown in public and if it has industrial application. Ideas-mathematical and scientific theories, for example-can not be patented. The patent must be carefully worded since it may be possible for someone to copy any part of the process or invention not mentioned in the patent.
Literature, artistic works, computer programs, movies and radio and television broadcasts can not be patented, but they can be protected by copyright. In most countries, such work is automatically protected when it is created; there is no need to apply for or to register copyright. It is usual to record the date of creation and mark it with the international copyright symbol ©, But this is not essential.
As with other kinds of property, intellectual property can only be protected if ownership is clear. The holder of a patent is often a company rather than the individual scientists inventing something in the course of their work. A copyright is usually owned by the creator of the work- the writer, painter or musician-but like other property, it might be passed to someone else. If a journalist is employed by a newspaper then the articles he writes are usually the copyright of the newspaper owner. The copyright in a movie is owned by the film maker, not by individual writers or performers. The copyright in the book is held by the publishers who commissioned it.
In recent years it has been difficult for intellectual property law to keep pace with technological change. Video recording, satellite television, and the use of computers have expanded so rapidly that it is becoming difficult to control copying. The main emphasis of recent laws is not to prevent people from copying, but to ensure they pay for doing so.
The laws of intellectual property usually require anyone wanting to copy something to ask permission from the holder of the patent or copyright. In the case of small-scale use of artistic work, permission is often granted free of charge. For industrial use of a scientific invention, a great deal of money might need to be paid. But most legal systems allow a certain amount of copying even without asking permission.
2. Зіставте англійські словосполучення з тексту з їх російськими еквівалентами.
Прочитайте опис правових дисциплін, які пропонуються студентам-юристам у вищому навчальному закладі. Зіставте опис з назвою курсу. | юридичний | UNIT 2. SYSTEM AND CLASSIFICATION OF LAW | Прочитайте пропозиції, в яких ing-форми виступають в якості доповнення в реченні. Визначте, якою частиною мови вони переводяться на російську мову. | CLASSIFICATION OF LAW | Підберіть російські еквіваленти до слів і словосполучень з тексту. | Знайдіть в тексті англійські еквіваленти і складіть з ними свої пропозиції. | UNIT 3. CRIMINAL AND CIVIL PROCEDURE | Заповніть пропуски артикля там, де це необхідно. | CRIMINAL AND CIVIL PROCEDURE |